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Summary

A standardized cortical defect was created on the caudal cortex of the proximal portion of each ulna in 5 adult mixed-breed dogs. One gram of autogenous cancellous bone graft (acbg) was obtained from the greater tubercle of the ipsilateral humerus. The cortical defect in the ulna of 1 limb was filled with 1 g of acbg that had been compressed with 2-MPa pressure for 30 seconds. One gram of noncompressed acbg was placed into the contralateral ulnar cortical defect. The compressed and noncompressed acbg recipient sites were radiographed at weekly intervals. Dogs were euthanatized 8 weeks after surgery, and the acbg recipient sites were harvested for histomor-phometric analysis. Optical densitometry was performed on all radiographs. There was no significant difference between compressed and noncompressed acbg with optical densitometry or histomorphometric analysis for total bone area. We concluded that there was no difference in osteogenic capability between compressed and noncompressed acbg of equal mass.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bone plates applied to the cranial surfaces of the tibia, the tarsus, and the metatarsus were used in 10 dogs and 1 cat that underwent pantarsal arthrodesis. Lengthening plates were used in 7 dogs, and 2.7- and 3.5-mm dynamic compression plates were used in the remaining dogs and the cat. Radiography was used to determine whether bone plates became loose or broke, and whether the joint fused completely.

Bone plates became loose in 5 dogs; mean time between surgery and development of radiographic evidence of plate loosening was 19.4 months. The bone plate used in the cat broke 4 months after surgery. Overall, 9 of 11 animals had evidence of complete bony fusion of the tarsus at the time of the last radiographic evaluation. One dog had incomplete healing of the talocalcaneocentral joint and another dog had incomplete healing of the tarsometatarsal joint.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 3-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was evaluated for progressive lameness of the left forelimb 21 months after being shot in the elbow with a lead bullet.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings were consistent with moderate osteoarthritis of the left elbow joint. Orthogonal radiographic views of the elbow revealed multiple metallic fragments in and around the joint space as well as signs of osteoarthritis.

Treatment and Outcome—The elbow joint was evaluated arthroscopically. A lead-based bullet fragment was seen in the lateral synovial compartment and removed in multiple pieces. Excess fibrin and synovium were removed, and microfractures were created in exposed subchondral bone to stimulate neovascularization and fibrocartilage formation. In a follow-up telephone conversation 4 months after surgery, the owner reported a marked improvement in the lameness.

Clinical Relevance—Removal of lead intra-articular foreign bodies may be indicated even if the material is not believed to mechanically interfere with joint motion.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the osteogenic effect of differing volumes of autogenous cancellous bone graft (ACBG) placed into partial cortical defects of the ulna.

Animals

15 healthy, mature Beagles.

Procedure

Weekly radiographic views of defects were obtained over 8 weeks and were analyzed for bone density by use of radiographic optical densitometry. Histologic sections were obtained 8 weeks after surgery and were planimetrically evaluated for area of total, lamellar, and woven bone.

Results

Defects receiving 0.3 and 0.75 g of ACBG had rapid initial bone production, and dogs receiving 0.3 g of ACBG had faster bone ingrowth than did those receiving 0.1 g of ACBG or controls. Defects receiving 0.75 g of ACBG had a rate of bony ingrowth equal to 0.3 g of ACBG. There was no difference in the histomorphometric area fractions of total, lamellar, or woven bone between defects treated with 0.1 or 0.75 g of ACBG, and between grafted or control defects, 8 weeks after surgery.

Conclusions

Overfilling a cortical defect with ACBG does not enhance early osteogenesis within the defect, and underfilling will delay the onset of osteogenesis within the defect.

Clinical Relevance

A volume of ACBG sufficient only to fill a cortical defect is required to obtain a clinical osteogenic effect from the graft. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1501-1505)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of synovial inflammation and signs of pain, function, bone healing, and osteoarthritis following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with spontaneous cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR).

ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with unilateral CCLR.

PROCEDURES All dogs were instrumented with an accelerometer for 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after TPLO. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive LLLT (radiant exposure, 1.5 to 2.25 J/cm2; n = 6) or a control (red light; 6) treatment immediately before and at predetermined times for 8 weeks after TPLO. Owners completed a Canine Brief Pain Inventory weekly for 8 weeks after surgery. Each dog underwent a recheck appointment, which included physical and orthopedic examinations, force plate analysis, radiography and synoviocentesis of the affected joint, and evaluation of lameness and signs of pain, at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Select markers of inflammation were quantified in synovial fluid samples. Variables were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS For the control group, mean ground reaction forces were greater at 2 and 4 weeks after TPLO and owner-assigned pain scores were lower during weeks 1 through 5 after TPLO, compared with corresponding values for the LLLT group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the LLLT protocol used had no beneficial effects on signs of pain or pelvic limb function following TPLO. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effects of LLLT and to determine the optimum LLLT protocol for dogs with CCLR.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare virucidal effects and bone incorporation properties of cortical bone allografts transplanted into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats. Allografts consisted of untreated bone from a SPF cat (negative-control group) and bone from 5 FeLV-infected cats that was subjected to sterilization with ethylene oxide (ETO), preservation with glycerol, or no treatment (positive-control group).

Sample Population—Bones from the aforementioned groups and twenty 8-week-old SPF cats (5 cats/group) implanted with an allograft from 1 of the aforementioned groups.

Procedure—After implantation, blood samples were collected weekly to monitor FeLV p27 antigen and antibody titers. Quantification of FeLV provirus was performed on blood samples at weeks 0, 4, and 8 and donor bone samples at time of implantation. Cats were euthanatized 8 weeks after transplantation, and graft sites were evaluated.

Results—All results for negative-control cats were negative. All ETO group cats had negative results for antigen and provirus in blood, whereas 1 cat had a low antibody titer. Although 3 ETO-treated allografts were positive for provirus, the DNA appeared denatured. One cat in the glycerol group had positive results for all tests in blood samples. All glycerol-preserved allografts were positive when tested for provirus. All results for positive-control group cats were positive. Differences in incorporation of bone grafts were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glycerol preservation of FeLV-infected bone allografts did not eliminate transmission of retrovirus to recipients. In contrast, ETO sterilization appeared to denature DNA and prevent infection. Treatments did not affect incorporation of bone grafts in young cats. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:665–671)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs with lameness previously attributed to canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—369 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Hospital medical records from 1994 to 2003 were reviewed for dogs in which the referring veterinarian had diagnosed hip dysplasia or hip pain. Dogs were designated as having hind limb lameness because of partial or complete CCLR or CHD.

Results—8% of dogs were sexually intact females, 43% were spayed females, 14% were sexually intact males, and 35% were castrated males. Mean age was 3.8 years (range, 3 months to 15 years). The most common breeds were the Labrador Retriever (21%), German Shepherd Dog (13%), and Golden Retriever (11%). The prevalence of CCLR as the cause of hind limb lameness was 32% (95% confidence interval, 27.2% to 36.8%). The distribution of CCLR among hind limbs was left (29%), right (28%), and bilateral (43%). Of 119 dogs with CCLR, 94% had concurrent radiographic signs of CHD, 92% had stifle joint effusion, and 81% had a cranial drawer sign.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the high prevalence of CCLR in dogs referred for lameness because of CHD, it is important to exclude other sources of stifle joint disease before making recommendations for treatment of CHD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1109–1111)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association