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Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of IV administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs.

Animals—7 dogs.

Procedures—Thromboelastography and coagulation panel analysis were used to assess coagulation. Samples (S1 through S9) were collected during the study phases: phase 0 (S1 [baseline]); phase 1 (S2 and S3), infusion of crystalloid fluid without dextrose; phase 2 (S4 and S5), high-rate dextrose infusion; phase 3 (S6, S7, and S8), moderate-rate dextrose infusion; and phase 4 (S9), discontinuation of fluids for 24 hours. In phase 3, dogs were allocated to 2 groups; 1 was administered dextrose at a rate comparable to total parental nutrition (40% of resting energy requirement; group A), and 1 was administered dextrose at rates equaling 70% to 90% of resting energy requirement (group B). Blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours.

Results—No dogs had clinically relevant sustained hyperglycemia. Maximum amplitude and elastic shear modulus were significantly lower at S6 than at S1 through S4. Concentration of D-dimer was significantly higher at S6 than at S1, S3, and S4 and significantly higher at S5 than at S3. Prothrombin time was significantly prolonged at S3, S5, S7, S8, and S9, compared with the value at S1. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged at S5 and S6, compared with values at S1, S2, S3, S4, and S9.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of dextrose to healthy dogs at rates comparable to or higher than those for conventional parenteral nutrition resulted in mild but clinically unimportant interference with coagulation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a rapid and accurate flow cytometric method for measuring degranulation of specific granules in bovine neutrophils.

Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from four 6- to 18-month-old Holstein cattle.

Procedure—A monoclonal antibody (BL97) was generated against bovine lactoferrin and tested for applicability in ELISA, immunoprecipitation tests, immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometric analyses. Using this antibody, cell-surface lactoferrin was measured concurrent with amount of secreted lactoferrin from bovine neutrophils activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cell-surface lactoferrin also was measured on neutrophils in bovine whole blood stimulated with PMA, platelet-activating factor (PAF), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8).

Results—Antibody BL97 recognized bovine lactoferrin in ELISA and western immunoblots and was useful for immunoprecipitation testing, immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometric analyses of bovine leukocytes. Neutrophils activated with PMA had parallel increases in content of secreted lactoferrin (measured by ELISA) and cell-surface lactoferrin (measured by flow cytometry) with increasing PMA concentrations. In addition, fluorescein-conjugated BL97 antibody detected increases in cell-surface lactoferrin on neutrophils in bovine whole blood after activation with PMA, PAF, and IL-8. In contrast, increases in cell-surface lactoferrin were not detected on bovine neutrophils treated with fMLF.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of cell-surface lactoferrin on bovine neutrophils by flow cytometry is a valid and rapid method for assessment of release of lactoferrin from specific granules in these cells and represents a means to rapidly measure neutrophil activation. This technique allows for investigation of mechanisms of neutrophil modification in isolated cells as well as in whole blood. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:29–37)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and prostanoid concentrations in pyloric and duodenal mucosae of dogs after administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Animals—8 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Each dog received carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, q 24 h), aspirin (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), and placebo (1 dog treat, q 24 h) orally for 3 days (4-week interval between treatments). Before study commencement (baseline) and on day 3 of each treatment, pyloric and duodenal mucosal appearance was assessed endoscopically and biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic examination. Cyclooxygenase-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were assessed via western blotting, and prostanoid concentrations were measured via ELISAs. An ANOVA was used to analyze data.

Results—Treatments had no effect on mucosal appearance and ulceration was not evident histologically. In pyloric and duodenal mucosae, COX-1 expression was unaffected by treatments. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression remained unchanged in pyloric mucosa; in duodenal mucosa, aspirin significantly increased COX-2 expression, compared with effects of deracoxib and carprofen. At baseline, total prostaglandin and thromboxane B2 concentrations in pyloric mucosa were significantly greater than those in duodenal mucosa. Aspirin significantly decreased both prostanoid concentrations in both mucosal tissues, compared with other treatments. In pyloric mucosa, carprofen administration significantly decreased total prostaglandin and thromboxane B2 concentrations, compared with deracoxib administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, prostanoid synthesis was greater in pyloric mucosa than it was in duodenal mucosa. Nonselective NSAIDs significantly decreased prostanoid concentrations in these mucosae, compared with the effects of a selective COX-2 NSAID.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess in vivo effects of short-term administration of NSAIDs with varied cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity on pyloric and duodenal mucosa.

Animals—8 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Each dog received deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 3 days), firocoxib (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 3 days), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 1 day followed by 0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 2 days), or placebo orally for 3 days; there was a 4-week interval between successive treatments. Prior to and on day 3 of drug administration, pyloric and duodenal mucosae were assessed endoscopically and biopsy specimens obtained for histologic examination. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 protein expressions were assessed (western blotting) and prostanoid concentrations measured (ELISAs). Data were analyzed by use of an ANOVA.

Results—Drug administration did not significantly affect endoscopic mucosal scores, histologic scores, or COX-1 or -2 protein expression. The COX-1 protein expression was significantly higher in the pylorus than in the duodenum. Total prostaglandin and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations were significantly greater in pyloric than in duodenal mucosa. Drug administration had no effect on prostaglandin or TXB2 concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prostanoid concentrations in gastric and duodenal tissues, and gross and histologic appearances, were not significantly affected by drugs with varied COX-2 selectivity. These findings suggested that, for these experimental conditions, there were no differences among the preferential and selective COX-2 inhibitors with regard to adverse effects on the gastric and duodenal portions of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS

341 chimpanzees (175 males and 166 females) from 5 sanctuaries and 2 zoological collections.

PROCEDURES

Chimpanzees were anesthetized for routine health examinations between May 2011 and July 2017 as part of the International Primate Heart Project and, during the same anesthetic events, underwent 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiographic assessments. Relationships between results for ECG and those for echocardiographic measures of atrial areas, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd), and mean left ventricular wall thicknesses (MLVWT) were assessed with correlational analysis, then multiple linear regression analyses were used to create hierarchical models to predict cardiac structure from ECG findings.

RESULTS

Findings indicated correlations (r = −0.231 to 0.310) between results for ECG variables and echocardiographic measures. The duration and amplitude of P waves in lead II had the strongest correlations with atrial areas. The Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and R-wave amplitude in leads V6 and II had the strongest correlations with MLVWT, whereas the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, QRS-complex duration, and S-wave amplitude in leads V2 and V1 had the strongest correlations with LVIDd. However, the ECG predictive models that were generated only accounted for 17%, 7%, 11%, and 8% of the variance in the right atrial end-systolic area, left atrial end-systolic area, MLVWT, and LVIDd, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relationships existed between ECG findings and cardiac morphology in the chimpanzees of the present study; however, further research is required to examine whether the predictive models generated can be modified to improve their clinical utility.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To comprehensively characterize cardiac structure and function, from infancy to adulthood, in male and female wild-born captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in sanctuaries.

ANIMALS

290 wild-born captive chimpanzees.

PROCEDURES

Physical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on anesthetized chimpanzees in 3 sanctuaries in Africa between October 2013 and May 2017. Results were evaluated across age groups and between sexes, and potential differences were assessed with multiple 1-way independent Kruskal-Wallis tests.

RESULTS

Results indicated that left ventricular diastolic and systolic function declined at a younger age in males than in females. Although differences in right ventricular diastolic function were not identified among age groups, right ventricular systolic function was lower in adult chimpanzees (> 12 years old), compared with subadult (8 to 12 years old) and juvenile (5 to 7 years old) chimpanzees. In addition, male subadult and adult chimpanzees had larger cardiac wall dimensions and chamber volumes than did their female counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study provided useful reference intervals for cardiac structure and function in captive chimpanzees categorized on the basis of age and sex; however, further research is warranted to examine isolated and combined impacts of blood pressure, age, body weight, and anesthetic agents on cardiac structure and function in chimpanzees.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research