To determine the effect of a food toy on owner-perceived quality of life (QOL) of overweight cats during a weight loss plan.
44 adult cats, 1 to 10 years of age with a body condition score (BCS) ≥ 7/9.
Cats were randomly assigned to the food toy or food bowl group. Cat owners completed an initial questionnaire and received a prescribed weight loss plan, bag of dry veterinary therapeutic cat food formulated for weight loss, measuring cup, and food bowl or ball-type food toy. Body weight and BCS were checked monthly. Owners completed a monthly questionnaire to assess their cat’s QOL. Low-calorie vegetables were offered to 32 cats whose owners reported disruptive food-seeking behavior.
Of the 44 cats in the final analysis, 29 cats either lost ≥ 2 BCS points or achieved an ideal BCS. Owner-perceived QOL was higher at the final weigh-in, compared with that at the initial weigh-in. An effect of food toy versus food bowl on owner-perceived QOL was not detected. Of the cats offered vegetables, 28 cats would eat the vegetables with a palatability additive; 4 cats ate vegetables plain.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Owner-perceived QOL was higher at the end of the study. Feeding overweight cats by use of a ball-type food toy did not influence owner-perceived QOL. Low-calorie vegetables can successfully be added to the weight loss diet to promote satiety; albeit, a palatability additive is likely needed. Further studies regarding feeding management for cats during a weight loss plan should be explored.
Objective—To determine whether a high dosage of pimobendan, when administered concurrently with moderate-dosage furosemide to healthy dogs, would activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) more than furosemide alone.
Animals—12 healthy dogs.
Procedures—6 dogs received furosemide (2.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) only, as an RAAS activator, for 10 days. The other 6 dogs received furosemide (2.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and pimobendan (0.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days. The effect of these drugs on the RAAS was determined by measurement of the aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of study days −2, −1, 1, 5, and 10.
Results—Although there was an increase in the urine A:C during the study period in both groups, it was significant only for dogs that received both drugs. The urine A:C only differed significantly between groups on day 1, at which time A:C was greater in the group that received both drugs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High-dosage pimobendan administration neither substantially suppressed nor potentiated the RAAS when administered with furosemide in healthy dogs.
Objective—To measure effects of dog position on L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal area and lumbosacral (LS) angle by means of computed tomography (CT) and determine whether changes in values between positions are associated with clinical signs in dogs with LS disease.
Animals—86 dogs examined via a positional CT protocol that included flexion and extension scans of L7-S1.
Procedures—Archived CT images and medical records were reviewed. Included dogs had good-quality flexion and extension CT scans of L7-S1 and no evidence of fractures, neoplasia, or previous LS surgery. One person who was unaware of CT findings recorded clinical status with regard to 3 signs of LS disease (right or left hind limb lameness and LS pain) at the time of CT evaluation. One person who was unaware of clinical findings measured L7-S1 foraminal areas and LS angles, with the aid of an image-analysis workstation and reformatted parasagittal planar CT images.
Results—Intraobserver variation for measurements of L7-S1 foraminal area ranged from 6.4% to 6.6%. Mean foraminal area and LS angle were significantly smaller when vertebral columns were extended versus flexed. Percentage positional change in L7-S1 foraminal area or LS angle was not significantly different among dogs with versus without each clinical sign. There was a significant correlation between percentage positional change in L7-S1 foraminal area and LS angle in dogs with versus without ipsilateral hind limb lameness and LS pain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positional CT is a feasible technique for quantifying dynamic changes in L7-S1 intervertebral foraminal morphology in dogs with LS disease.
Objective—To determine the effectiveness of cystotomy for complete removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs, the types and frequency of diagnostic imaging performed to verify complete urolith removal, the complications that develop as a result of cystotomy, and predictors of each of these variables.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—128 dogs that underwent a cystotomy for removal of urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both from 1994 through 2006.
Procedures—The following data were obtained from medical records: sex, body weight, number and locations of lower urinary tract uroliths identified in preoperative and postoperative imaging reports, types of imaging used for urolith detection, number of uroliths recovered during cystotomy, quantitative urolith composition, and major complications attributable to cystotomy. Objective criteria were applied to determine whether a cystotomy failed or succeeded and whether appropriate imaging was performed. Associations between potential prognostic factors and outcomes were statistically assessed.
Results—Effectiveness of cystotomy could be determined in 44 (34%) dogs, of which 9 (20%) had incomplete removal of uroliths. Appropriate postoperative imaging was performed for only 19 (15%) dogs, of which 8 had incomplete removal. Dogs with both urethroliths and urocystoliths were more likely to have a failed cystotomy than dogs with only urethroliths or urocystoliths. Complications developed in 5 (4%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystotomy was a safe and effective surgical procedure for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in most dogs. Failure to remove all uroliths occurred in a substantial percentage of patients.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 equimolar concentrations of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and isoflupredone acetate (IPA) on equine articular tissue cocultures in an inflammatory environment.
SAMPLE Synovial and osteochondral explants from the femoropatellar joints of 6 equine cadavers (age, 2 to 11 years) without evidence of musculoskeletal disease.
PROCEDURES From each cadaver, synovial and osteochondral explants were harvested from 1 femoropatellar joint to create cocultures. Cocultures were incubated for 96 hours with (positive control) or without (negative control) interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL) or with IL-1β and MPA, TA, or IPA at a concentration of 10−4, 10−7, or 10−10M. Culture medium samples were collected from each coculture after 48 and 96 hours of incubation. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, lactate dehydrogenase, and glycosaminoglycan were determined and compared among treatments at each time.
RESULTS In general, low concentrations (10−7 and 10−10M) of MPA, TA, and IPA mitigated the inflammatory and catabolic (as determined by prostaglandin E2 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 quantification, respectively) effects of IL-1β in cocultures to a greater extent than the high (10−4M) concentration. Mean culture medium lactate dehydrogenase concentration for the 10−4M IPA treatment was significantly greater than that for the positive control at both times, which was suggestive of cytotoxicosis. Mean culture medium glycosaminoglycan concentration did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the in vitro effects of IPA and MPA were similar to those of TA at clinically relevant concentrations (10−7 and 10−10M).
To determine the prevalence of electrographic seizure (ES) and electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) in dogs and cats that underwent electroencephalography (EEG) because of suspected seizure activity and to characterize the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality rates for dogs and cats with ES or ESE.
Retrospective case series.
89 dogs and 15 cats.
Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent EEG at a veterinary neurology service between May 2009 and April 2015 were reviewed. Electrographic seizure was defined as ictal discharges that evolved in frequency, duration, or morphology and lasted at least 10 seconds, and ESE was defined as ES that lasted ≥ 10 minutes. Patient signalment and history, physical and neurologic examination findings, diagnostic test results, and outcome were compared between patients with and without ES or ESE.
Among the 104 patients, ES and ESE were diagnosed in 21 (20%) and 12 (12%), respectively. Seventeen (81%) patients with ES had no or only subtle signs of seizure activity. The in-hospital mortality rate was 48% and 50% for patients with ES and ESE, respectively, compared with 19% for patients without ES or ESE. Risk factors for ES and ESE included young age, overt seizure activity within 8 hours before EEG, and history of cluster seizures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL REVELANCE
Results indicated that ES and ESE were fairly common in dogs and cats with suspected seizure activity and affected patients often had only subtle clinical signs. Therefore, EEG is necessary to detect patients with ES and ESE.
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride–0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification.
DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study.
ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes).
PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day. Dogs with IOPs of 26 to 45 mm Hg received 1 drop of 0.005% latanoprost solution topically; the surgeon's treatment of choice was used for dogs with IOPs > 45 mm Hg. Incidence of POH and postoperative IOPs were compared between treatment groups.
RESULTS DHTM treatment resulted in significantly lower incidence of POH than did sham treatment at the level of the dog (18/53 [34%] vs 31/50 [62%]) and the eye (24/94 [26%] vs 42/86 [48%]). Mean IOP did not differ between groups at the time of POH detection. The DHTM-treated eyes that developed POH were significantly more likely to have a 1-hour follow-up IOP < 25 mm Hg after latanoprost administration than were sham-treated eyes (19/25 [76%] vs 18/35 [51%]; OR, 3.87).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Multidose perioperative administration of DHTM in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification reduced the incidence of POH and improved responsiveness of POH to latanoprost treatment.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of administration of the labeled dosage of pimobendan to dogs with furosemide-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
Animals—12 healthy hound-type dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups (6 dogs/group). One group received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). The second group received a combination of furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). To determine the effect of the medications on the RAAS, 2 urine samples/d were obtained for determination of the urinary aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) on days 0 (baseline), 5, and 10.
Results—Mean ± SD urinary A:C increased significantly after administration of furosemide (baseline, 0.37 ± 0.14 μg/g; day 5, 0.89 ± 0.23 μg/g) or the combination of furosemide and pimobendan (baseline, 0.36 ± 0.22 μg/g; day 5, 0.88 ± 0.55 μg/g). Mean urinary A:C on day 10 was 0.95 ± 0.63 μg/g for furosemide alone and 0.85 ± 0.21 μg/g for the combination of furosemide and pimobendan.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Furosemide-induced RAAS activation appeared to plateau by day 5. Administration of pimobendan at a standard dosage did not enhance or suppress furosemide-induced RAAS activation. These results in clinically normal dogs suggested that furosemide, administered with or without pimobendan, should be accompanied by RAAS-suppressive treatment.
Objective—To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi.
Procedures—Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi).
Results—Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.
Objective—To determine whether the pattern of extension of modeled infection from the interdigital web spaces in dogs is predictable and whether the distribution differs among initial injury sites.
Sample Population—Thawed frozen forelimbs from 23 cadavers of previously healthy adult medium- to large-breed dogs.
Procedures—The manus of each forelimb was evaluated by use of computed tomography (CT) before and after injection of radiopaque blue-staining contrast medium into the interdigital web spaces. Two veterinary radiologists reviewed the CT images and recorded the extent of contrast medium from each site. Each manus was dissected or sectioned transversely after imaging, and the extent of contrast medium accumulation was recorded and compared with locations of CT contrast enhancement. The Fisher exact test was performed to determine whether the pattern of contrast medium extension differed by injection site.
Results—Injections made in the interdigital web spaces of the canine manus led to unique and predictable patterns of extension into the surrounding soft tissues. That pattern of extension primarily involved the soft tissues of the digits.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In humans, knowledge of common extension patterns from infected soft tissue spaces is used to predict the spread of disease within the hand and develop surgical plans that will minimize patient illness. Identification of the common sites of disease spread from the interdigital web spaces in dogs may help improve surgical planning and treatment for infection in the manus.