Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline
(PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl-metabolite,
metabolite 1 (M1), in dogs after IV administration of a
single dose and oral administration of multiple doses.
Procedure—A crossover study design was used so
that each of the dogs received all treatments in random
order. A drug-free period of 5 days was allowed
between treatments. Treatments included IV administration
of a single dose of PTX (15 mg/kg of body
weight), oral administration of PTX with food at a
dosage of 15 mg/kg (q 8 h) for 5 days, and oral administration
of PTX without food at a dosage of 15 mg/kg
(q 8 h) for 5 days. Blood samples were taken at 0.25,
0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 hours after the first and last
dose of PTX was administered PO, and at 5, 10, 20, 40,
80, and 160 minutes after PTX was administered IV.
Results—PTX was rapidly absorbed and eliminated
after oral administration. Mean bioavailability after
oral administration ranged from 15 to 32% among
treatment groups and was not affected by the presence
of food. Higher plasma PTX concentrations and
apparent bioavailability were observed after oral
administration of the first dose, compared with the
last dose during the 5-day treatment regimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, oral
administration of 15 mg of PTX/kg results in plasma
concentrations similar to those produced by therapeutic
doses in humans, and a three-times-a-day dosing
regimen is the most appropriate. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:631–637)
Case Description—A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated because of placental abnormalities and a retained placental remnant.
Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the placenta yielded pure growth of Amycolatopsis spp. Histologic examination of the placenta revealed a focally expanding chorionitis with intralesional gram-positive filamentous bacilli and multifocal allantoic adenomatous hyperplasia on the apposing allantoic surface.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with lavage and oxytocin resulted in expulsion of the placental remnant within hours of parturition. The mare did not become pregnant again despite multiple breedings. The foal appeared healthy but died of complications during an elective surgical procedure at 7 weeks of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, all previously confirmed cases of nocardioform placentitis have been in mares bred in the central Kentucky region. Indications that the pathogen in the mare reported here is a different species than that isolated in Kentucky suggest that this is an emerging disease. Mares with nocardioform placentitis usually do not have the same clinical signs as mares with placentitis resulting from an ascending pathogen.
Objective—To identify serum biochemical and hematologic variables, as measured in the week before parturition, that predict postpartum retention of the placenta (RP) in dairy cows.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,038 cows in 20 commercial dairy herds.
Procedures—Serum concentrations of fatty acids (FAs), β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, glucose, urea, and calcium and blood leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts were determined. These variables were evaluated for an association with development of RP by use of a multivariate logistic regression model. Parity, season of par-turition, existence of twins or dystocia, body condition score, and vitamin E treatment were included in the model as covariates.
Results—High serum concentrations of cholesterol and FAs were associated with an increased odds of RP. There was a 5% relative increase in the odds of RP for each 0.1 mmol/L increase in cholesterol or FAs concentration in the week before parturition. Season of parturition and twinning were also identified as risk factors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These associations indicated that prepartum energy metabolism contributes to the development of RP. Serum concentrations of cholesterol and FAs may be useful to identify cows with a metabolic abnormality or energy imbalance that might predispose them to RP and should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical risk factors such as twinning, dystocia, or parturient paresis.
Procedure—Medical records of horses with a slab
fracture of the central (n = 9) or third (16) tarsal bone
were reviewed. Only horses for which treatment consisted
of confinement to a stall were included in this
study. Clinical features and radiographic findings were
recorded and summarized. Outcome was determined
for racing breeds by obtaining official lifetime race
results. Outcome for Quarter Horses was determined
by phone survey of the owners.
Results—16 (64%) horses had a successful outcome.
Ten of 14 (71%) Standardbreds and 2 of 6
Thoroughbreds returned to racing and started at least
5 races after injury. Four of 5 Quarter Horses for
which follow-up information was available successfully
returned to their previous activity. Sex, age, limb
affected, or gait was not associated with final outcome.
Percentage of racehorses with central tarsal
bone fractures that had a successful outcome (2/7)
was significantly less than percentage with third
tarsal bone fractures that did (10/13).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that enforced rest without surgical fixation can
be an effective therapeutic option for horses with a
slab fracture of the central or third tarsal bone, even if
athletic function is expected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether anti-inflammatory doses of cyclosporine activate Toxoplasma gondii in chronically infected cats or potentiate infection in cats exposed for the first time.
ANIMALS 30 T gondii–negative cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (10 cats/group). Group 1 (control) cats were administered a placebo for 126 days; group 2 cats were administered a placebo for 84 days, followed by cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 42 days; and group 3 cats were administered cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 126 days. Cats were orally inoculated with T gondii on day 42. Results for fecal flotations, PCR assays, and histologic examinations and IgM and IgG titers were analyzed. Cyclosporine concentrations were measured on selected days.
RESULTS All cats were infected by T gondii and developed signs of self-limiting gastrointestinal tract infection. Group 3 had the highest incidence and severity of CNS and pulmonary histopathologic findings typical of toxoplasmosis. One cat in group 3 died of systemic toxoplasmosis; that cat had a cyclosporine concentration of 1,690 ng/mL. Group 2 cats infected with T gondii before cyclosporine administration did not have repeated oocyst shedding. Group 3 cats shed fewer oocysts for a shorter time than did control cats of group 1.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cyclosporine in accordance with the protocol for this study did not potentiate the enteroepithelial phase of T gondii infection. Cats with high cyclosporine blood concentrations at the time of primary T gondii infection may be at risk of developing systemic toxoplasmosis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of single manual alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) to eliminate atelectasis during CT of anesthetized foals.
ANIMALS 6 neonatal Standardbred foals.
PROCEDURES Thoracic CT was performed on spontaneously breathing anesthetized foals positioned in sternal (n = 3) or dorsal (3) recumbency when foals were 24 to 36 hours old (time 1), 4 days old (time 2), 7 days old (time 3), and 10 days old (time 4). The CT images were collected without ARMs (all times) and during ARMs with an internal airway pressure of 10, 20, and 30 cm H2O (times 2 and 3). Quantitative analysis of CT images measured whole lung and regional changes in attenuation or volume with ARMs.
RESULTS Increased attenuation and an alveolar pattern were most prominent in the dependent portion of the lungs. Subjectively, ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis; however, they did incrementally reduce attenuation, particularly in the nondependent portion of the lungs. Quantitative differences in lung attenuation attributable to position of foal were not identified. Lung attenuation decreased significantly (times 2 and 3) and lung volume increased significantly (times 2 and 3) after ARMs. Changes in attenuation and volume were most pronounced in the nondependent portion of the lungs and at ARMs of 20 and 30 cm H2O.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manual ARMs did not eliminate atelectasis but reduced attenuation in nondependent portions of the lungs. Positioning of foals in dorsal recumbency for CT may be appropriate when pathological changes in the ventral portion of the lungs are suspected.
Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.
Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.
Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.
Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.
Objective—To describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and factors associated with survival time in a cohort of dogs with lingual neoplasia that underwent surgical excision.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—97 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a lingual tumor examined between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed. Records were included if a lingual tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and surgical excision of the mass was attempted. Data were recorded and analyzed to identify prognostic factors.
Results—Clinical signs were mostly related to the oral cavity. For 93 dogs, marginal excision, subtotal glossectomy, and near-total glossectomy were performed in 35 (38%), 55 (59%), and 3 (3%), respectively. Surgery-related complications were rare, but 27 (28%) dogs had tumor recurrence. The most common histopathologic diagnoses for the 97 dogs were squamous cell carcinoma (31 [32%]) and malignant melanoma (29 [30%]). Eighteen (19%) dogs developed metastatic disease, and the overall median survival time was 483 days. Median survival time was 216 days for dogs with squamous cell carcinoma and 241 days for dogs with malignant melanoma. Dogs with lingual tumors ≥ 2 cm in diameter at diagnosis had a significantly shorter survival time than did dogs with tumors < 2 cm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Similar to previous studies, results indicated that lingual tumors are most commonly malignant, and squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma predominate. A thorough physical examination to identify lingual tumors at an early stage and surgical treatment after tumor identification are recommended because tumor size significantly affected survival time.