Objective—To characterize interstitial lung diseases
(ILDs) and evaluate use of keyhole lung biopsy for
diagnosis of ILDs in dogs and cats.
Animals—11 dogs and 2 cats.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing
keyhole lung biopsy to confirm ILDs were
reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, results of thoracic
radiography and other respiratory diagnostic
tests, postoperative complications, and patient outcome
Results—Clinical respiratory signs included cough,
tachypnea, exercise intolerance, and hemoptysis.
Thoracic radiographic abnormalities included interstitial,
alveolar, and bronchointerstitial patterns and multiple
discrete pulmonary nodules. Lung biopsy and
histologic examination revealed interstitial pulmonary
fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia,
or unclassified lesions. Outcome after biopsy
included no response to treatment, euthanasia, partial
or complete remission while receiving medication,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recognition
and classification of ILDs in dogs and cats are likely to
be important in guiding appropriate treatment and
providing accurate prognostic information. Ancillary
respiratory diagnostic tests are beneficial in ruling out
infectious and neoplastic disorders that may mimic
ILDs; however, their present use in the diagnosis of
ILDs is limited. Results suggest that keyhole lung
biopsy is an effective means for obtaining a specimen
for histologic diagnosis in dogs and cats with ILDs.
( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1453–1459)
Objective—To investigate the effects of preexisting
FeLV infection or FeLV and feline immunodeficiency
(FIV) coinfection on the pathogenicity of the small
variant of Haemobartonella felis (Hfsm, California variant)
Animals—20 FeLV infected, 5 FeLV-FIV coinfected,
and 19 retrovirus-free cats.
Procedure—A client-owned cat, coinfected with
FeLV and Hfsm, was the source for Hfsm.
Inoculum 1 (FeLV free) was obtained by passage of
source Hfsm through 4 FeLV-resistant cats.
Inoculum 2 was obtained by further passage of
Hfsm (inoculum 1) through 2 specific pathogenfree
Results—A mild-to-moderate anemia started 21 days
after inoculation, with its nadir occurring at 35 to 42
days after inoculation. Infection with Hfsm induced
greater decrease in hemoglobin concentration in FeLV
infected cats, compared with retrovirus free cats.
Reticulocytosis, macrocytosis, and polychromasia of
erythrocytes developed in anemic cats regardless of
retrovirus infection status. Mean neutrophil counts
decreased during the hemolytic episode. For most
cats, the anemia was transient. Four FeLV infected
cats, 1 of which was also FIV infected, developed fatal
FeLV-associated myeloproliferative diseases. Of the
surviving cats, 8 died over the next 24 months from
other FeLV-related diseases. Hemolysis did not recur
after the initial episode. Inoculum 1 induced more
severe anemia than inoculum 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results
support the clinical observation that cats coinfected
with FeLV and H felis develop more severe anemia
than cats infected with H felis alone. Infection with
Hfsm may induce myeloproliferative disease in FeLV
infected cats. The small variant of H felis may lose
pathogenicity by passage through FeLV-free cats.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1172–1178)
Objective—To determine clinicopathologic and radiographic
features and etiologic agents in cats that died
as a result of infectious pneumonia.
Procedure—Medical records of cats in which infectious
pneumonia was confirmed by histologic examination
of necropsy specimens were reviewed.
Signalment, clinical signs, and results of a CBC, viral
serologic tests, and thoracic radiography were evaluated.
Infectious agents were classified as bacterial,
viral, fungal, protozoal, or parasitic. Histologic features
(severity, duration, anatomic location, and distribution)
Results—Clinical signs referable to the respiratory
tract were not detected in 14 of 39 (36%) cats, and
results of a CBC (4/18 cats) and radiography (3/13)
were unremarkable. Sixteen of 39 (41%) cats lacked
clinical signs of systemic illness. Etiologic agents
identified included bacteria (n = 21), viruses (11), fungi
(6), protozoa (2), and parasites (1). Cats with clinical
signs related to the respiratory tract (19/24 [79%]
cats) were more likely to have severe histologic
changes than cats without signs related to the respiratory
system (6/14). Twenty-nine of 38 (76%) cats
had histologic evidence of systemic disease, whereas
the remaining cats had lesions limited to the respiratory
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infectious
pneumonia is uncommon in cats. Cats with infectious
pneumonia may lack clinical signs and have
unremarkable results for a CBC and thoracic radiography,
yet frequently have systemic infections.
Therefore, clinicians should maintain an index of suspicion
for pneumonia and evaluate the respiratory
tract when infection is detected in other organ systems.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1142–1150)
Objective—To determine clinical signs, radiographic
and histologic abnormalities, and concurrent diseases
in cats with endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) and
to determine the pathologic importance of EnLP in
Procedure—Medical records of cats in which EnLP
was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy
specimens were reviewed. Information collected
from the medical records included signalment, body
weight, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic
tests. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a radiologist;
histologic specimens were reviewed by a
Results—All cats had nonspecific clinical abnormalities,
such as lethargy, anorexia, or weight loss; 16 had
signs of respiratory tract disease. All cats had concurrent
systemic diseases, and clinicopathologic abnormalities
were reflective of these conditions.
Nonspecific abnormalities were detected on thoracic
radiographs from 9 of 11 cats. Most cats had macroscopic,
multifocal, subpleural lesions; inflammatory
infiltrates, cholesterol clefts, and multinucleated giant
cells were common. Ten cats had an underlying
obstructive pulmonary disease that was the likely
cause of EnLP. Lesions of EnLP were not considered
to be severe enough or extensive enough to be the
cause of death in any of these cats.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—EnLP is an
uncommon respiratory tract disorder of cats with no
pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, or radiographic
findings. Although EnLP was not the cause of death
in any of these cats, results of the present study do
suggest that EnLP may be a marker for potentially
severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1437–1440)
Objective—To develop a computer-assisted image
analysis procedure for quantitation of neovascularization
in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens
of thyroid gland tissue from dogs with and
without thyroid gland neoplasia.
Sample Population—47 thyroid gland carcinomas,
8 thyroid gland adenomas, and 8 specimens of thyroid
tissue from dogs without thyroid gland abnormalities
Procedure—Serial tissue sections were prepared
and stained with antibodies against human CD31 or
factor VIII-related antigen (factor VIII-rag). The areas
of highest vascularity were identified in CD31-
stained sections, and corresponding areas were
then identified in factor VIII-rag-stained sections.
Image analysis was used to calculate the total vascular
density in each section, and neovascularization,
expressed as a percentage, was determined
as the absolute value of the total vascular density
derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections minus
the vascular density derived from CD31-stained
Results—Mean vascular density of thyroid gland
carcinomas derived from CD31-stained sections
was significantly greater than density derived from
factor VIII-rag-stained sections. This incremental difference
was presumed to represent degree of neovascularization.
However, significant differences
were not detected between vascular densities
derived from CD31 and factor VIII-rag-stained sections
for either normal thyroid gland tissue or thyroid
gland adenomas. No significant correlations
were found between vascular density in thyroid
gland carcinomas and survival time following
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A computerassisted
image analysis method was developed for
quantifying neovascularization in thyroid gland
tumors of dogs. This method may allow identification
of dogs with tumors that are most likely to
respond to treatment with novel antiangiogenesis
agents. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:363–369)
Objective—To compare results of thoracic radiography,
cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL) fluid, and histologic evaluation of biopsy and
necropsy specimens in dogs with respiratory tract
disease and to determine whether histologic evaluation
provides important diagnostic information not
attainable by the other methods.
Procedure—BAL fluid was classified as normal, neutrophilic,
eosinophilic, mononuclear, mixed, neoplastic,
or nondiagnostic. Radiographic abnormalities
were classified as interstitial, bronchial, bronchointerstitial,
or alveolar. Histologic lesions were classified as
inflammatory, fibrotic, or neoplastic, and the predominant
site of histologic lesions was classified as the
alveoli, interstitium, or airway.
Results—The predominant radiographic location of
lesions correlated with the histologic location in 8
dogs. Of 11 dogs with histologic evidence of inflammatory
disease, 8 had inflammatory BAL fluid. Of the
2 dogs with histologic evidence of neoplasia, 1 had
BAL fluid suggestive of neoplasia, and the other had
BAL fluid consistent with septic purulent inflammation.
Two dogs without any histologic abnormalities
had mononuclear or nondiagnostic BAL fluid. Two
dogs with histologic evidence of fibrosis had mononuclear
or mixed inflammatory BAL fluid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that although thoracic radiography, cytologic
evaluation of BAL fluid, and histologic evaluation of
lung specimens are complementary, each method
has limitations in regard to how well results reflect
the underlying disease process in dogs with respiratory
tract disease. Lung biopsy should be considered
in cases where results of radiography and cytology
are nondiagnostic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:
Objective—To determine the incidence of bovine
papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 or 2 in sarcoids and other
samples of cutaneous tissues collected from horses
in the western United States.
Animals—55 horses with sarcoids and 12 horses
Procedure—Tissue samples (tumor and normal skin
from horses with sarcoids and normal skin, papillomas,
and nonsarcoid cutaneous neoplasms from
horses without sarcoids) were collected. Tissue samples
were analyzed for BPV-1 or -2 DNA, using a polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment
length polymorphism. The PCR products from 7 sarcoid-
affected horses were sequenced to evaluate percentage
homology with expected sequences for BPV-1 or -2.
Results—Most (94/96, 98%) sarcoids contained BPV
DNA. Sixty-two percent of the tumors examined had
restriction enzyme patterns consistent with BPV-2.
Thirty-one of 49 (63%) samples of normal skin
obtained from horses with sarcoids contained BPV
DNA. All samples subsequently sequenced had
100% homology with the expected sequences for the
specific viral type. All tissues from healthy horses,
nonsarcoid neoplasms, and papillomas were negative
for BPV DNA.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine papillomaviral
DNA was detected in essentially all sarcoids
examined. There appears to be regional variation in
the prevalence of viral types in these tumors. The fact
that we detected viral DNA in normal skin samples
from horses with sarcoids suggests the possibility of
a latent viral phase. Viral latency may be 1 explanation
for the high rate of recurrence following surgical excision
of sarcoids. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:741–744)
Objective—To describe pharmacokinetics of multidose
oral administration of tacrolimus in healthy cats
and evaluate the efficacy of tacrolimus in the prevention
of allograft rejection in cats with renal transplants.
Animals—6 healthy research cats.
Procedure—Cats received tacrolimus (0.375 mg/kg,
PO, q 12 h) for 14 days. Blood tacrolimus concentrations
were measured by a high performance liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Each cat
received an immunogenically mismatched renal allograft
and native kidney nephrectomy. Tacrolimus
dosage was modified to maintain a target blood concentration
of 5 to 10 ng/mL. Cats were euthanatized
if plasma creatinine concentration exceeded 7 mg/dL,
body weight loss exceeded 20%, or on day 50 after
surgery. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for
6 cats treated with tacrolimus and for 8 cats with
renal transplants that did not receive immunosuppressive
Results—Mean (± SD) values of elimination half-life,
time to maximum concentration, maximum blood concentration,
and area under the concentration versus
time curve from the last dose of tacrolimus to 12 hours
later were 20.5 ± 9.8 hours, 0.77 ± 0.37 hours, 27.5 ±
31.8 ng/mL, and 161 ± 168 hours × ng/mL, respectively.
Tacrolimus treated cats survived longer (median, 44
days; range, 24 to 52 days) than untreated cats (median,
23 days; range, 8 to 34 days). On histologic evaluation,
3 cats had evidence of acute-active rejection, 1 cat
had necrotizing vasculitis, and 2 cats euthanatized at
study termination had normal appearing allografts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tacrolimus
may be an effective immunosuppressive agent for
renal transplantation in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:926–934)
Objective—To determine cytologic and microbiologic findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and SpO2 values obtained during BAL in healthy rabbits.
Procedures—Bronchoscopic BAL of left and right caudal lobar bronchi (LB2 and RB4) was performed with 3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution; SpO2 was measured before, during, and after BAL. Percentage fluid recovered, total leukocyte counts, and differential cell counts were determined. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial, mycoplasmal, and fungal cultures were performed from combined LB2 and RB4 samples.
Results—Mean ± SD percentage fluid volumes recovered from LB2 and RB4 were 53 ± 13% and 63 ± 13%, respectively. Mean ± SD total leukocyte counts from LB2 and RB4 were 422 ± 199 cells/μL and 378 ± 97 cells/μL, respectively. Macrophages were most frequently identified. There were no significant differences in volumes retrieved, total leukocyte counts, or differential cell percentages between LB2 and RB4. Microbial culture results were negative for 3 rabbits and positive for mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth in 6 and 2 rabbits, respectively. The SpO2 was ≥ 95% in 7 of 9 rabbits after anesthetic induction, < 95% in 5 of 6 rabbits 1 minute after BAL, and ≥ 95% in 5 of 9 rabbits and > 90% in 4 of 9 rabbits 3 minutes after BAL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bronchoscopic BAL with 3 mL of saline solution provided adequate fluid recovery for microbiologic and cytologic examination from the caudal lung lobes. Transient low SpO2 was detected immediately after BAL.
Objective—To determine whether histopathologic
changes are detectable in grossly normal medial
menisci from dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate
Sample Population—40 medial menisci from dogs
with rupture of the CCL and 20 medial menisci from
control dogs without stifle joint disease.
Procedure—Data evaluated included age, duration of
clinical signs, and whether rupture of the CCL was
complete or incomplete. Three groups (n = 20/group)
were also compared on the basis of 5 histologic criteria;
group-1 menisci appeared grossly normal and
were obtained from dogs with naturally occurring rupture
of the CCL, group-2 menisci were grossly abnormal
and were also obtained from dogs with naturally
occurring CCL ruptures, and group-3 menisci were
collected at postmortem from dogs without stifle
joint disease that were of similar age and weight as
dogs in groups 1 and 2.
Results—Group-2 menisci were significantly different
from group-1 and -3 menisci in all histologic criteria.
Group-1 menisci were significantly different from control
menisci in only 1 of the 5 histologic criteria (cartilage
differentiation). Dogs that were ≥ 3 years old had
significantly more surface cellularity than did dogs
that were < 3 years old. A significant difference was
not detected between groups 1 and 2 with regard to
completeness of rupture.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Histologic
changes in meniscal cartilage correlate with gross
appearance of the cartilage at time of surgery for rupture
of the CCL. On the basis of minimal histologic
changes, routine removal of grossly normal menisci
does not appear to be warranted. (J Am Vet Med