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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—3 adult (24- to 43-year-old) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with chronic episodic malaise and inappetence associated with high serum aminotransferase (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) activities, high serum iron concentration, and serum transferrin saturation > 80% were evaluated.

Clinical Findings—Results of histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens revealed hemosiderosis in all 3 dolphins. Except for chronic lymphocytosis in 1 dolphin, results of extensive diagnostic testing revealed no other abnormalities. For each dolphin, a diagnosis of iron overload of unknown origin was made.

Treatment and Outcome—Phlebotomy treatment was implemented to reduce body stores of iron. Each phlebotomy procedure removed 7% to 17% (1 to 3 L) of estimated blood volume. Treatment consisted of an induction phase of weekly phlebotomy procedures for 22 to 30 weeks, which was complete when serum iron concentration and aminotransferase activities were within reference ranges and serum transferrin saturation was ≤ 20% or Hct was ≤ 30%. Total amount of iron removed from each dolphin was 53 to 111 mg/kg (24.1 to 50.5 mg/lb) of body weight. One dolphin required maintenance procedures at 8- to 12-week intervals when high serum iron concentration was detected.

Clinical Relevance—Although the cause of the iron overload and high serum aminotransferase activities remained unknown, phlebotomy treatment successfully resolved the clinicopathologic abnormalities, supporting a role of iron overload in the hepatopathy of the 3 dolphins.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To characterize the serologic responses of dogs naturally exposed to or vaccinated against Borrelia burgdorferi and to assess responses at intervals after antibiotic treatment.


Prospective, controlled clinical trial.


19 dogs of various breeds and ages with narrowly defined clinical criteria of limb/joint borreliosis and 10 control dogs of equivalent age were used to determine serologic responses following natural exposure to the organism. Eight seronegative dogs were used to determine serologic responses following vaccination.


Serologic responses to B burgdorferi and recombinant outer surface protein (Osp)A, flagellin, and P39 were assessed by means of elisa and western immunoblot. Passive protective activity was assessed by use of a mouse protection assay.


Naturally exposed dogs were seropositive, but had variable elisa titers and immunoblot profiles. Immunoblot analysis did reveal consistent reactions to flagellin, P39, and a 22 kd protein, but not to OspA. Antibody responses did not change appreciably up to 13 weeks after antibiotic treatment. Vaccinated dogs had strong reactions to OspA and OspB, but not to P39.

Clinical Implications—

Dogs with clinical borreliosis are seropositive and remain seropositive after antibiotic treatment, emphasizing that serologic testing is not a useful means of measuring clinical response. Serologic responses of infected dogs can be discriminated from those of vaccinated dogs by means of immunoblot analysis, and recombinant P39 is a potentially useful antigen for that purpose.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical status and renal and hematopoietic function after kidney donation and identify risks associated with kidney donation in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—14 dogs that underwent unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation.

Procedures—Records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data regarding prenephrectomy clinicopathologic variables. Dogs were reexamined prospectively at various times after nephrectomy, and pre- and postnephrectomy CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio were compared. Six dogs had postnephrectomy renal volume determined ultrasonographically, and 4 of those dogs also underwent scintigraphic determination of glomerular filtration rate and renal biopsy.

Results—All dogs were clinically normal at the time of reevaluation. There were no significant differences between prenephrectomy and postnephrectomy values for BUN concentration or urine specific gravity. Mean postnephrectomy serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than prenephrectomy concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased after nephrectomy, and mean Hct, corpuscular volume, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased after nephrectomy. Postnephrectomy renal volume was greatest in dogs < 12 months old at the time of surgery. Mean postnephrectomy glomerular filtration rate was 2.82 ± 1.12 mL/kg/ min (1.28 ± 0.51 mL/lb/min). Renal biopsy specimens obtained during and after nephrectomy were histologically normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal and hematopoietic variables were within reference ranges in dogs examined up to 2.5 years after unilateral nephrectomy. Compensatory renal hypertrophy was greatest in dogs < 1 year of age at donation. Donor age, along with histocompatability, may be an important factor in selecting dogs for kidney donation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association