Objective—To evaluate the outcome of resection of simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile thyroid gland carcinomas (TGCs) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—15 dogs with resected simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile TGCs.
Procedures—Medical records (from 1994 to 2010) were searched for dogs with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information collected included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, tumor mobility (mobile tumor identified by movement ≥ 1 cm in all planes during palpation), complications, adjuvant treatments, and outcome.
Results—Mobile, discrete, bilateral TGCs were removed in all dogs. Among the 15 dogs, complete parathyroidectomies were necessary in 9; parathyroid tissue was reimplanted in 4 and preserved in 2. Complications included hemorrhage and laryngeal nerve trauma, but without serious consequences. Thirteen dogs received calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium after surgery. In the immediate postoperative period, hypocalcemia developed and was corrected in 11 dogs. At the end of the study, 7 dogs continued to receive calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium, and 8 dogs required long-term thyroid hormone treatment. Six dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy. Local tumor recurrence or de novo distant metastasis was not detected at each dog's last follow-up examination. Median survival time was 38.3 months. Three dogs were lost to follow-up, 8 survived (4.3 to 77 months after surgery), and 4 died of unrelated causes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with TGCs undergoing bilateral thyroid lobectomies, a successful outcome can be expected, even when parathyroid gland tissue cannot be preserved. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in treatment outcome was not clearly defined.
Objective—To evaluate risk factors for outcome for dogs with adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava treated via adrenalectomy.
Animals—86 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of adrenal gland tumors.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of an adrenal gland tumor from 1993 to 2009 were reviewed; data collected including signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test findings, treatments prior to surgery, findings at surgery including additional procedures performed and extent of caudal vena caval invasion (local invasion [caudal to the hepatic portion of the vena cava] or extensive invasion [cranial to the hepatic portion of the vena cava]), procedures performed during surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, perioperative complications, follow-up data, and necropsy findings.
Results—Of the 86 dogs, 14 had adenomas, 45 had adrenocortical carcinomas, and 27 had pheochromocytomas. Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumors, 7 were locally invasive and 7 were extensively invasive. Risk factors for poor short-term survival (death within 14 days following surgery) were vena caval invasion, extent of invasion, pheochromocytoma, intraoperative transfusion, and postoperative factors including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypoxemia, and renal failure. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for poor short-term survival revealed that extensive invasion was the most important factor. Regardless of extent of invasion or tumor type, long-term survival was possible.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Invasion of the caudal vena cava, particularly tumor thrombus extension beyond the hepatic hilus, was associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate, but did not affect long-term prognosis in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy because of an adrenal gland tumor.
Objective–To describe the clinical features, surgical
and histologic findings, biological behavior, and outcome
of dogs with retroperitoneal sarcomas.
Procedures–Medical and pathology records from 1992
to 2002 of dogs with tumors originating in the retroperitoneal
space were reviewed. Dogs with retroperitoneal
tumors originating from the adrenal glands, kidneys, or
ureters were excluded. Inclusion criteria included observation
of a tumor arising from the retroperitoneal space
during exploratory surgery or necropsy and histologic
confirmation of tumor type. Details of clinical signs, diagnostic
findings, surgical management, and outcome
were determined from medical records and telephone
interviews with veterinarians and owners.
Results–Retroperitoneal sarcoma was diagnosed in
14 dogs, 2 at necropsy and 12 during exploratory
surgery. Hemangiosarcoma was the most common
histologic diagnosis. Seven dogs had regional extension
of the sarcoma into adjacent organs, and 4 dogs
had metastatic disease. Grossly complete resection
was possible in 6 dogs. Cytoreductive surgery or incisional
biopsy was performed in the remaining dogs.
Two dogs were treated with palliative radiation therapy
(1 intraoperatively and 1 postoperatively). Three
dogs received adjunctive chemotherapy, although
none completed the targeted course because of
development of local recurrence or metastatic disease.
Local recurrence was reported in 2 of 12 dogs
and metastasis in 10 of 14 dogs. Thirteen dogs died or
were euthanatized as a result of the retroperitoneal
sarcoma; 1 dog was alive and disease-free 410 days
after surgery. Median survival time was 37.5 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–In dogs,
retroperitoneal sarcomas are aggressive tumors with
a high rate of local recurrence and metastasis, and a
poor survival time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of an alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy protocol in dogs with putative microscopic metastases after amputation for appendicular osteosarcoma and assess patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors for associations with prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—50 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Records of dogs that underwent amputation for appendicular osteosarcoma and received an alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy protocol were reviewed. Dogs had full staging and were free of detectable metastases prior to chemotherapy. Data on disease-free interval (DFI), survival time, and toxicoses were retrieved from medical records and owner or referring veterinarian communications.
Results—Median DFI was 202 days. Median survival time was 258 days. Twenty-nine (58%) dogs completed the protocol as planned, and the rest were withdrawn typically because of metastases or toxicoses. Grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression was reported in 9 of 50 (18%) dogs and grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal toxicosis in 6 of 50 (12%) dogs. There were no chemotherapy-related fatalities. Univariate factors associated with significant improvement in DFI included tumor location (radius), receiving doxorubicin as the first drug, starting chemotherapy more than 14 days after amputation, and no rib lesions on preamputation bone scans. Multivariate factors associated with a significant improvement in survival time were tumor location (radius) and completing chemotherapy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alternating administration of carboplatin and doxorubicin resulted in DFI and survival time similar to those reported for single-agent protocols. Clients should be counseled regarding the likelihood of toxicoses. Relevance of sequence and timing of starting chemotherapy should be further evaluated.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of primary re-excision alone for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas after recent incomplete resection, the frequency and clinical importance of detecting residual tumor in resected scars, and prognostic factors associated with the procedure.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that had undergone recent incomplete excision of a soft tissue sarcoma at a referring veterinary practice and subsequent re-excision of the scar at the Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center were reviewed.Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information.Slides from re-excised specimens were reviewed.Dogs that underwent radiation therapy after the re-excision procedure were excluded.
Results—41 dogs met the inclusion criteria, and long-term follow-up information was available for 39 dogs.Median follow-up time was 816 days.Local recurrence of tumor developed in 6 of 39 (15%) dogs, and distant metastasis occurred in 4 of 39 (10%) dogs.Healthy tis sue margins of 0.5 to 3.5 cm were achieved at re-excision. Residual tumor was identified in 9 of 41 (22%) resected scars.No tumor-, patient-, or treatment-related variables were associated with local recurrence except for the presence of liposarcoma or fibrosarcoma or whether fine-needle aspiration had been performed prior to surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After incomplete resection of soft tissue sarcomas, resection of local tissue should be performed, even if excisable tissue margins appear narrow.A long-term favorable prognosis is achievable without radiation therapy or amputation. The presence of residual tumor in resected scar tissue should not be used to predict local recurrence.
Objective—To describe the clinical signs, diagnostic findings, surgical management, and outcome in dogs with splenic liposarcoma.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—13 client-owned dogs with splenic liposarcoma.
Procedures—Medical and pathology records of dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of splenic liposarcoma from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed for the following data: clinical signs, CBC, biochemical profile, thoracic and abdominal imaging, surgical management, histologic grade, and outcome (local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival time). Telephone interviews were conducted with referring veterinarians.
Results—The median survival time (MST) was 623 days (range, 1 to 1,283 days). In 5 dogs that died of splenic liposarcoma, survival times ranged from 42 to 369 days. Metastasis at the time of surgery was a negative prognostic indicator: the MST was 45 days for dogs with metastasis and 767 days for dogs without metastasis. Dogs with grade 1 splenic liposarcoma had a significantly greater MST (1,009 days), compared with dogs with grade 2 or 3 splenic liposarcoma (MST, 206 and 74 days, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed that splenic liposarcoma is a rare differential diagnosis in dogs with a splenic mass. Survival time was influenced by preoperative clinical stage and histologic grade.
Objective—To identify matrix metalloproteinases
(MMP) 2 and 9 in canine tumor tissue and to compare
the amount of activity to that in unaffected stromal
Animals—30 dogs with spontaneously developing,
Procedure—Tumor and nearby stromal tissue (muscle)
were obtained at the time of surgery. Specimens were
homogenized, and supernatants were assayed, using
gelatin zymography. Human derived standards were
run concurrently. Densitometry was done to obtain a
semiquantitative arbitrary unit value for each specimen.
The amount of activity in tumor tissue was compared
with the amount in stromal tissue.
Results—Gelatinolytic bands were observed from
the analysis of all tumor tissues and in most stromal
tissues. These bands migrated in the same molecular
weight area as the human MMP 2 and 9 standards.
Gelatinolytic activity could be quenched by the addition
of 50 mM EDTA and 1 µg of synthetic tissue
inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 2 per 100 ml.
There was significantly more gelatinolytic activity in
tumor tissue than in stromal tissue.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MMP 2 and 9
are detectable in canine neoplastic tissue. matrix metalloproteinases
activity in tumor tissue is higher than in
unaffected stromal tissue, indicating that canine MMP
may be involved in the pathogenesis of tumor growth
and metastasis. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:111–114)
Objective—To assess survival time in dogs that underwent treatment for stage III osteosarcoma and evaluate factors affecting survival.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—90 dogs with stage III osteosarcoma.
Procedures—Records in the osteosarcoma database at the Animal Cancer Center at Colorado State University from 1985 to 2004 were searched for dogs with metastatic disease at the time of evaluation. Dogs were included in the study if they had metastasis to any site and if treatment was initiated. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, and the influences of age, sex, breed, primary tumor site, metastatic sites, and treatment on outcome were analyzed via log-rank analysis.
Results—Median survival time was 76 days, with a range of 0 to 1,583 days. No significant differences in survival times on the basis of age, sex, breed, or primary site were observed. Breeds and primary tumor sites were typical of those usually associated with osteosarcoma in dogs. Dogs treated palliatively with radiation therapy and chemotherapy had a significantly longer survival time (130 days) than dogs in all other treatment groups. Dogs treated with surgery alone had a significantly shorter survival time (3 days) than dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy (78 days). Dogs with bone metastases had a longer survival time than dogs with soft tissue metastases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of dogs with stage III osteosarcoma can result in various survival times. Dogs with metastasis to bone and dogs that were treated palliatively with radiation and chemotherapy had the longest survival times.