Objective—To establish a safe and effective endoscopic method for visualizing the gonads and identifying the sex of hatchling Chinese box turtles and to compare the effects of general versus local anesthesia during coelioscopy.
Animals—58 hatchling Chinese box turtles (Cuora flavomarginata).
Procedures—Turtles were randomly assigned to be anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine, medetomidine, and morphine (n = 29) or to receive local anesthesia with lidocaine in the prefemoral region (29). Coelioscopy was performed with a rigid 1.9- or 2.7-mm telescope following insufflation with sterile lactated Ringer's solution. Ease of endoscopic sex identification and quality of anesthesia were scored. Body weights were recorded before and 7 and 14 days after surgery.
Results—Gonads were easily visualized and sex was easily identified in all 58 turtles without complications. Endoscopy scores and pre- and postoperative weights did not differ significantly between groups. However, anesthesia scores were significantly worse for animals that received local anesthesia alone, compared with those that underwent general anesthesia. All anesthetized turtles recovered within 21 minutes after administration of the reversal agents, atipamezole and naloxone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that coelioscopy with a rigid endoscope and lactated Ringer's solution for insufflation was a safe and effective method for identifying the sex of hatchling Chinese box turtles. General anesthesia was effective and effects were rapidly reversible; local anesthesia with lidocaine alone was considered insufficient for coelioscopy.
Objective—To describe a coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy technique for use in chelonians.
Animals—11 adult female turtles (6 red-eared sliders, 2 box turtles, 1 painted turtle, 1 four-eyed turtle, and 1 Chinese red-necked pond turtle). Five turtles required oophorectomy because of reproductive tract disease; the remaining 6 underwent elective oophorectomy.
Procedures—Turtles were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. An incision was made in the prefemoral fossa, and a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope was inserted into the coelomic cavity and used to identify the ovaries. Each ovary was grasped with forceps and exteriorized through the prefemoral incision. The ovarian vasculature was ligated, and the mesovarium was transected. Closure was routine.
Results—In 8 turtles, bilateral oophorectomy was performed through a single incision. In 2 turtles, unilateral oophorectomy was performed in an attempt to maintain reproductive potential. In 1 turtle with a unilateral ovarian remnant from a previous surgery, unilateral oophorectomy was performed. Nine turtles recovered. One box turtle with severe hepatic lipidosis died 7 days after surgery. A second box turtle died 2 days after removal of retained eggs and a large bacterial granuloma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy is a practical and safe method for treating reproductive disorders and performing elective oophorectomy in turtles. This technique represents a potential alternative to plastron osteotomy in sexually mature chelonians.
Procedure—During isoflurane anesthesia, 15 pigeons
were allowed to breathe spontaneously (SP group)
and 15 were mechanically ventilated (MV group) by
use of a pressure-limited ventilator. In each group,
cardiopulmonary variables (including end-tidal CO2
concentration [ETCO2]) were measured before (baseline),
during, and after coelioscopy. An arterial blood
sample was collected for blood gas analyses from
each pigeon before coelioscopy and after the procedure,
when the caudal thoracic air sac was still open.
Results—At baseline, hypoventilation was greater in
the SP group than the MV group. Compared with the
SP group values, ETCO2 overestimated PaCO2 to a
greater degree in the MV group. Cardiovascular variables
were not different between groups. After coelioscopy
(when the air sac was open), PaCO2 had
decreased significantly from baseline in the MV group.
In the SP group, hypoventilation worsened despite an
increase in respiratory rate. After coelioscopy, PaO2 in
the SP group had decreased from baseline and was
lower than PaO2 in the MV group; arterial blood pressure
and heart rate in the MV group had decreased from
baseline and were lower than values in the SP group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In adult
pigeons, controlled ventilation delivered by a pressurelimited
device was not associated with clinically important
adverse cardiopulmonary changes but may be
associated with respiratory alkalosis and cardiovascular
depression when air sac integrity has been disrupted.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1424–1428)
Objective—To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.
Animals—15 healthy juvenile green iguanas.
Procedures—Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O2 inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis.
Results—Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, Pao2 was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, Pao2 was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O2 did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased Pao2 to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.
Objective—To establish a safe and effective technique for the endoscopic examination and biopsy of snake lungs by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system.
Animals—17 adult ball pythons (Python regius).
Procedures—The right lung of each anesthetized snake was transcutaneously penetrated at a predetermined site. Endoscopic lung examination was objectively scored, and 3 lung biopsies were performed. Tissue samples were evaluated histologically for diagnostic quality. One year later, 11 of the 17 snakes again underwent pulmonoscopy and biopsy; specimens were placed in various fixatives to compare preservation quality. All 17 snakes were euthanatized and necropsied.
Results—No major anesthetic, surgical, or biopsy-associated complications were detected in any snake. In 16 of 17 pythons, ease of right lung entry was satisfactory to excellent, and views of the distal portion of the trachea; primary bronchus; intrapulmonary bronchus; cranial lung lobe; and faveolar, semisaccular, and saccular lung regions were considered excellent. In 1 snake, mild hemorrhage caused minor procedural difficulties. After 1 year, pulmonoscopy revealed healing of the previous transcutaneous lung entry and biopsy sites. Important procedure-induced abnormalities were not detected at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of specimens that were shaken from biopsy forceps into physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution before fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde or neutral-buffered 10% formalin was considered good to excellent.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, lung examination and biopsy can be performed safely, swiftly, and with ease in ball pythons. Biopsy specimens obtained during this procedure are suitable for histologic examination.
Objective—To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice.
Animals—11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Procedures—Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination.
Results—For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean ± SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 ± 7 minutes and 6.8 ± 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.
Objective—To evaluate endoscopic liver biopsy and compare that technique with a standard coeliotomy biopsy technique in fish.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—30 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).
Procedures—10 fish were randomly assigned into control, coeliotomy, and coelioscopy groups. Anesthesia was performed with a recirculating anesthesia machine. Body weight, PCV, and total protein (TP) concentration in blood as well as plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were measured before and after surgery. Standard ventral coeliotomy or coelioscopy was performed, and the biopsy specimens were scored histologically.
Results—Coeliotomy and coelioscopy procedures were well tolerated without acute deaths. Blood TP concentration and PCV decreased after surgery in the coelioscopy group because of intracoelomic fluid administration to aid visualization. Minor changes in activities for hepatic and muscular enzyme activities were apparent, but were not significantly different between the coelioscopy and coeliotomy groups. Coelioscopy and coeliotomy yielded biopsy specimens of similar diagnostic quality. However, coelioscopy permitted a more extensive evaluation of the viscera, and all 10 surgical wounds healed completely, compared with severe wound dehiscence in 3 of 10 fish that underwent coeliotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both coelioscopy and coeliotomy were capable of yielding antemortem liver biopsy specimens of diagnostic quality in catfish. Coelioscopy permitted a more detailed examination of the coelomic viscera through a smaller surgical incision, was less traumatic, and resulted in decreased wound dehiscence.
Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female Netherland dwarf rabbit was examined because of a 3-week history of signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, left unilateral exophthalmia, a previous draining sinus from a left maxillary facial abscess, and bilateral nasal discharge.
Clinical Findings—The rabbit weighed 1.0 kg (2.2 lb) and had a body condition score of 1.5/5. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle atrophy, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and severe left-sided exophthalmia. Diagnostic investigation revealed anemia, neutrophilia, severe dental disease, a superficial corneal ulcer of the left eye, and a retrobulbar abscess.
Treatment and Outcome—Stomatoscopy-aided dental trimming, tooth removal, and abscess debridement were performed. Antimicrobials were flushed into the tooth abscess cavity, and antimicrobial treatment was initiated on the basis of cytologic findings and results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing.Two months after the initial surgery, minimal exophthalmia was evident and no further physical, radiographic, or ultrasonographic changes were evident.
Clinical Relevance—Stomatoscopy is a valuable technique that can facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and serial reevaluation of rabbits with dental disease.