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Objective—To establish a safe and effective endoscopic method for visualizing the gonads and identifying the sex of hatchling Chinese box turtles and to compare the effects of general versus local anesthesia during coelioscopy.
Animals—58 hatchling Chinese box turtles (Cuora flavomarginata).
Procedures—Turtles were randomly assigned to be anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine, medetomidine, and morphine (n = 29) or to receive local anesthesia with lidocaine in the prefemoral region (29). Coelioscopy was performed with a rigid 1.9- or 2.7-mm telescope following insufflation with sterile lactated Ringer's solution. Ease of endoscopic sex identification and quality of anesthesia were scored. Body weights were recorded before and 7 and 14 days after surgery.
Results—Gonads were easily visualized and sex was easily identified in all 58 turtles without complications. Endoscopy scores and pre- and postoperative weights did not differ significantly between groups. However, anesthesia scores were significantly worse for animals that received local anesthesia alone, compared with those that underwent general anesthesia. All anesthetized turtles recovered within 21 minutes after administration of the reversal agents, atipamezole and naloxone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that coelioscopy with a rigid endoscope and lactated Ringer's solution for insufflation was a safe and effective method for identifying the sex of hatchling Chinese box turtles. General anesthesia was effective and effects were rapidly reversible; local anesthesia with lidocaine alone was considered insufficient for coelioscopy.
Objective—To describe a coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy technique for use in chelonians.
Animals—11 adult female turtles (6 red-eared sliders, 2 box turtles, 1 painted turtle, 1 four-eyed turtle, and 1 Chinese red-necked pond turtle). Five turtles required oophorectomy because of reproductive tract disease; the remaining 6 underwent elective oophorectomy.
Procedures—Turtles were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. An incision was made in the prefemoral fossa, and a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope was inserted into the coelomic cavity and used to identify the ovaries. Each ovary was grasped with forceps and exteriorized through the prefemoral incision. The ovarian vasculature was ligated, and the mesovarium was transected. Closure was routine.
Results—In 8 turtles, bilateral oophorectomy was performed through a single incision. In 2 turtles, unilateral oophorectomy was performed in an attempt to maintain reproductive potential. In 1 turtle with a unilateral ovarian remnant from a previous surgery, unilateral oophorectomy was performed. Nine turtles recovered. One box turtle with severe hepatic lipidosis died 7 days after surgery. A second box turtle died 2 days after removal of retained eggs and a large bacterial granuloma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy is a practical and safe method for treating reproductive disorders and performing elective oophorectomy in turtles. This technique represents a potential alternative to plastron osteotomy in sexually mature chelonians.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia).
ANIMALS 15 adult pigeons.
PROCEDURES Each pigeon was anesthetized, and the upper gastrointestinal tract (from the cervical portion of the esophagus to the ventriculus) was endoscopically evaluated by use of a rigid endoscope inserted orally. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was orally infused to achieve lumen dilation and visibility. Two mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of the proventriculus and ventriculus, histologically evaluated, and graded for crush artifacts and depth. Pigeons were monitored for adverse effects for 3 to 6 days after the procedure, after which they were euthanized for necropsy.
RESULTS Gastroscopy via the oral approach provided excellent visibility of the lumen and mucosal surfaces of the proventriculus and cranial portion of the ventriculus and was safe provided that appropriate precautions were taken. Two intraoperative deaths occurred at the beginning of the study; following procedure refinement, no additional deaths occurred. No major adverse effects of the procedure were detected in the remaining 13 pigeons during the postoperative monitoring period or at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of proventriculus specimens was adequate for 10 of 13 pigeons. Eight of 13 ventriculus specimens were of inadequate quality, and only 3 were of adequate quality.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gastroscopy was useful for evaluating the lumen and mucosal surface of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons, and biopsy of those organs was safely performed with the appropriate technique. Further evaluation of these techniques is needed in birds with clinical disease and birds of other species.
To identify antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for aerobic bacteria isolated from reptilian samples and, from those patterns, identify antimicrobials that could be considered for empirical treatment of reptiles with suspected bacterial infections.
129 bacterial isolates from 61 of 127 samples from 96 reptiles.
Medical records of reptiles (chelonian, crocodilian, lizard, and snake) presented to the zoological medical service of a veterinary teaching hospital between January 2005 and December 2016 were reviewed for submissions of patient samples for aerobic bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Sample type, presence or absence of bacterial growth, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated bacteria were recorded. The isolation frequency and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial genera and species were tabulated.
Pseudomonas spp and Enterococcus spp were the most frequently isolated gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Isolates of gram-negative bacteria frequently had susceptibility to amikacin (86%), gentamicin (95%), tobramycin (92%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83%), and gram-positive bacteria frequently had susceptibility to ampicillin (83%), chloramphenicol (92%), doxycycline (100%), and gentamicin (100%). Isolates of gram-positive bacteria were consistently resistant to ceftazidime.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Aerobic bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results for reptilian samples in this population indicated that aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin and doxycycline could be considered as options for the empirical treatment of reptiles with infections caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, respectively.
Objective—To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice.
Animals—11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana).
Procedures—Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination.
Results—For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean ± SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 ± 7 minutes and 6.8 ± 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.
OBJECTIVE To determine the outcome in birds undergoing inhalation anesthesia and identify patient or procedure variables associated with an increased likelihood of anesthesia-related death.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 352 birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia.
PROCEDURES Medical records of birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single veterinary referral hospital were reviewed. Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, type (pet, free ranging, or wild kept in captivity), body weight, body condition score, diagnosis, procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premedication used for anesthesia, drug for anesthetic induction, type of maintenance anesthesia, route and type of fluid administration, volumes of crystalloid and colloid fluids administered, intraoperative events, estimated blood loss, duration of anesthesia, surgery duration, recovery time, recovery notes, whether birds survived to hospital discharge, time of death, total cost of hospitalization, cost of anesthesia, and nadir and peak values for heart rate, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of inhaled anesthetic, and body temperature. Comparisons were made between birds that did and did not survive to hospital discharge.
RESULTS Of 352 birds, 303 (86%) were alive at hospital discharge, 12 (3.4%) died during anesthesia, 15 (4.3%) died in the intensive care unit after anesthesia, and 22 (6.3%) were euthanatized after anesthesia. Overall, none of the variables studied were associated with survival to hospital discharge versus not surviving to hospital discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed previous findings that indicated birds have a high mortality rate during and after anesthesia, compared with mortality rates published for dogs and cats.
Objective—To evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects of controlled versus spontaneous ventilation in pigeons anesthetized for coelioscopy.
Animals—30 healthy adult pigeons (Columbia livia).
Procedure—During isoflurane anesthesia, 15 pigeons were allowed to breathe spontaneously (SP group) and 15 were mechanically ventilated (MV group) by use of a pressure-limited ventilator. In each group, cardiopulmonary variables (including end-tidal CO2 concentration [ETCO2]) were measured before (baseline), during, and after coelioscopy. An arterial blood sample was collected for blood gas analyses from each pigeon before coelioscopy and after the procedure, when the caudal thoracic air sac was still open.
Results—At baseline, hypoventilation was greater in the SP group than the MV group. Compared with the SP group values, ETCO2 overestimated PaCO2 to a greater degree in the MV group. Cardiovascular variables were not different between groups. After coelioscopy (when the air sac was open), PaCO2 had decreased significantly from baseline in the MV group. In the SP group, hypoventilation worsened despite an increase in respiratory rate. After coelioscopy, PaO2 in the SP group had decreased from baseline and was lower than PaO2 in the MV group; arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the MV group had decreased from baseline and were lower than values in the SP group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In adult pigeons, controlled ventilation delivered by a pressurelimited device was not associated with clinically important adverse cardiopulmonary changes but may be associated with respiratory alkalosis and cardiovascular depression when air sac integrity has been disrupted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1424–1428)