Objective—To assess results of surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome (including stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and everted laryngeal saccules) in dogs and determine whether dogs with hypoplastic trachea have a less favorable long-term outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—62 dogs with brachycephalic syndrome.
Procedures—Medical records from 1991 to 2004 were reviewed for information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnosis, surgery, and long-term outcome. Surgical outcome was rated by owners as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Common abnormalities, treatments, and long-term outcomes among the 62 dogs were assessed.
Results—Predominantly affected breeds included English Bulldog, Pug, and Boston Terrier. Elongated soft palate was the most common abnormality (54/62 [87.1%] dogs); the most common combination of abnormalities was elongated soft palate, stenotic nares, and everted saccules (16/62 [25.8%] dogs). The English Bulldog was the most common breed for all abnormalities, including elongated soft palate (27/54 [50%] dogs), stenotic nares (14/36 [38.9%] dogs), everted saccules (20/36 [55.6%] dogs), hypoplastic trachea (7/13 [53.9%] dogs), and laryngeal collapse (2/5 [40%]). No dogs had everted saccules alone. Outcome did not differ between dogs under-going staphylectomy by use of laser or scissor resection. Follow-up information was obtained for 34 dogs; 16 (47.1%) had an excellent outcome, and 16 (47.1%) had a good outcome. Overall treatment success rate was 94.2%, and overall mortality rate was 3.2%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical treatment of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs appeared to be associated with a favorable long-term outcome, regardless of age, breed, specific diagnoses, or number and combinations of diagnoses.
Objective—To provide long-term follow-up information for a series of dogs and cats with invasive and noninvasive thymomas treated by excision alone.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—9 cats and 11 dogs with thymoma.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. The following factors were analyzed for their effect on prognosis: age of dog or cat, invasiveness of the tumor, percentage of lymphocytes in the mass (percentage lymphocyte composition) on histologic evaluation, and mitotic index of the mass.
Results—All patients were treated with excision of the tumor alone. Median overall survival time for the cats was 1,825 days, with a 1-year survival rate of 89% and a 3-year survival rate of 74%. Median overall survival time for the dogs was 790 days, with a 1-year survival rate of 64% and a 3-year survival rate of 42%. Recurrence of thymoma was observed in 2 cats and 1 dog, and a second surgery was performed in each, with subsequent survival times of 5, 3, and 4 years following the first surgery. Percentage lymphocyte composition of the mass was the only factor that was significantly correlated with survival time; animals with a high percentage of lymphocytes lived longer.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated that most cats and dogs with thymomas did well after excision. Even cats and dogs with invasive masses that survived the surgery and the few cats and dogs with recurrent thymomas or paraneoplastic syndromes had a good long-term outcome. Excision should be considered an effective treatment option for dogs and cats with thymomas.
Objective—To describe signalment, clinical findings, diagnostic tests, and results of treatment of dogs and cats with ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs and 2 cats with ORS.
Procedures—Medical records for animals examined between June 2000 and October 2007 were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, age at time of ovariohysterectomy (OHE), surgical findings during OHE, experience of the surgeon (veterinary student vs veterinarian), interval from OHE until diagnosis of ORS, results of diagnostic tests, surgical findings, and results of histologic examination of excised tissues.
Results—21 animals (19 dogs and 2 cats) with ORS were identified. The most common clinical signs were those associated with proestrus and estrus. More dogs than cats were affected, and all residual ovarian tissues were found in the region of the ovarian pedicles. The right ovary in dogs was affected significantly more often than the left ovary. Seven animals had neoplasms of the reproductive system. These animals had a significantly longer interval between OHE and diagnosis of ORS than did the 14 animals without neoplasms. Long-term follow-up of 18 animals revealed resolution of clinical signs following exploratory laparotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ovarian remnants were found in typical locations for ovaries and were not considered ectopic tissue; thus, surgical error during OHE was suspected as the cause of ORS. Anatomic differences may account for differences between species, and clinical signs may not be recognized until years after OHE. Surgical removal of residual ovarian tissue resulted in resolution of clinical signs.
Objective—To describe complications and outcome
associated with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion
treated with pleuroperitoneal shunts in dogs.
Procedure—Medical records at 4 veterinary schools
were examined to identify dogs with chronic nonseptic
pleural effusion that were treated by use of a pleuroperitoneal
shunt between 1985 and 1999.
Signalment, history, physical examination and laboratory
findings, cause and type of pleural effusion, medical
and surgical treatments, complications, and outcome
Results—10 of 14 dogs had idiopathic chylothorax,
and 4 had an identified disease. All but 1 dog with
idiopathic chylothorax and 1 dog with chylothorax
from a heart base tumor had unsuccessful thoracic
duct ligation prior to pump placement. No intraoperative
complications developed during shunt placement.
Short-term complications developed in 7 of 13
dogs, necessitating shunt removal in 2 dogs and
euthanasia in 1. Eight of 11 dogs with long-term follow-
up developed complications; the overall mean
survival time and the interval in which dogs remained
free of clinical signs of pleural effusion were 27
months (range, 1 to 108 months) and 20 months
(range, 0.5 to 108 months), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuroperitoneal
shunts can effectively palliate clinical signs
associated with intractable pleural effusion in dogs.
Numerous short- and long-term complications related
to the shunt should be expected. Most complications
can be successfully managed, but even when shunts
are functional some treatments fail because of severe
abdominal distension or massive pleural fluid production
that overwhelms the functional capacity of the
shunt. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1590–1597)