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To compare the quality of recovery in horses emerging from general anesthesia with or without the assistance of a novel device (recovery-enhancing device [RED]) designed to minimize high-energy falls.


20 mixed-breed horses, between July 1, 2023, and January 24, 2024.


A computer-controlled belay system designed to slow the acceleration of a horse during a fall was evaluated in this study. Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: RED (belay, assisted) or FREE (unassisted). An inertia-measuring unit was fitted to all horses and data were live streamed and recorded onto a computer for further analysis. Recoveries were scored using the composite grading scale (CGS; 0 to 100) by 3 independent observers. Two additional unitless recovery scores (RS and RS’), based on accelerometry values (high accelerations, less desirable), were calculated for each recovery. All the recovery scores were compared between the 2 treatment groups.


Composite grading scale scores were 26 ± 10 and 46 ± 13 in the RED and FREE groups, respectively (P = .001). The RS was 120 ± 79 and 198 ± 34 for the RED and FREE treatment groups, respectively (P = .015). The RS’ was 32 (7 to 50) and 46 (28 to 44) for the RED and FREE treatment groups, respectively (P = .038).


The RED improves the recovery scores compared with unassisted recoveries. This device may lead to a potential reduction in the number and severity of injuries in horses and personnel involved during the recovery period.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The effects of hypertonic saline solution (htss) combined with colloids on hemostatic analytes were studied in 15 dogs. The analytes evaluated included platelet counts, one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand's factor antigen (vWf:Ag), and buccal mucosa bleeding times. The dogs were anesthetized, and jugular phlebotomy was used to induce hypovolemia (mean arterial blood pressure = 50 mm of Hg). Treatment dogs (n = 12) were resuscitated by infusion (6 ml/kg of body weight) of 1 of 3 solutions: htss combined with 6% dextran 70, 6% hetastarch, or 10% pentastarch. The control dogs (n = 3) were autotransfused. Hemostatic analytes were evaluated prior to induction of hypovolemia (baseline) and then after resuscitation (after 30 minutes of sustained hypovolemia) at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 6 and 24 hours.

All treatment dogs responded rapidly and dramatically to resuscitation with hypertonic solutions. Clinically apparent hemostatic defects (epistaxis, petechiae, hematoma were not observed in any dog. All coagulation variables evaluated, with the exception of vWf:Ag, remained within reference ranges over the 24-hour period. The vWf:Ag values were not statistically different than values from control dogs, and actual values were only slightly lower than reference ranges. Significant (P ≤ 0.04) differences were detected for one-stage prothrombin time, but did not exceed reference ranges. The results of this study suggested that small volume htss/colloid solutions do not cause significant alterations in hemostatic analytes and should be considered for initial treatment of hypovolemic or hemorrhagic shock.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the hemodynamic consequences of the coadministration of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine with a fentanyl bolus in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy sexually intact male dogs weighing 30.3 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD).

Procedure—Dogs received either fentanyl alone (15.0 µg/kg, IV bolus) or the same dose of fentanyl during an 11-hour CRI of medetomidine (1.5 µg/kg/h, IV). Prior to drug administration, dogs were instrumented for measurement of cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and systemic arterial blood pressures. Additionally, blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery and left atrium for blood gas analysis.

Results—Medetomidine infusion reduced the cardiac index, heart rate, and O2 delivery while increasing left atrial pressure. Subsequent fentanyl administration further decreased the cardiac index. The PaO2 was not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups; however, fentanyl transiently decreased PaO2 from baseline values in dogs receiving a CRI of medetomidine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the prolonged hemodynamic changes associated with the CRI of medetomidine, its safety should be further evaluated before being clinically implemented in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1222–1226)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.

Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.

Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare signalment of horses with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation (CVM) with that of control horses and to describe results of clinical examination, diagnostic imaging and necropsy findings, and reported outcome in horses with CVM.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—270 horses with CVM and 608 control horses admitted to 6 veterinary hospitals from 1992 through 2007.

Procedures—Medical records of participating hospitals were reviewed to identify horses with CVM (ie, case horses) and contemporaneous control (non-CVM-affected) horses that were admitted for treatment. Signalment was compared between case horses and control horses. Results of clinical examination, laboratory and diagnostic imaging findings, necropsy results, and outcome were assessed for horses with CVM.

Results—Case horses were younger (median age, 2 years) than were control horses (median age, 7 years). Thoroughbreds, warmbloods, and Tennessee Walking Horses were overrepresented in the CVM group. Gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently detected in horses with CVM. Vertebral canal stenosis and articular process osteophytosis were commonly observed at necropsy; agreement between the results of radiographic or myelographic analysis and detection of lesions at necropsy was 65% to 71% and 67% to 78%, respectively. Of 263 horses with CVM for which outcome was recorded, 1 died and 172 (65.4%) were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Odds of a diagnosis of CVM were greater in young horses and horses of specific breeds. Detection of gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently reported in association with CVM. Accurate diagnosis of lesions associated with CVM by use of radiography and myelography can be challenging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:812-822)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association