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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the effects of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) implants on the healing of meniscal lesions in dogs.

Animals—16 adult Greyhounds of both sexes.

Procedure—Unilateral osteotomy was performed at time 0 to disrupt the medial collateral ligament attachment, and two (1 cranial and 1 caudal) 4-mm circular defects were created in the avascular portion of the medial meniscus. One defect was filled with an SIS graft, and the other defect remained empty (control). Three months later, the identical procedure was performed on the contralateral limb. Three months after the second surgery, dogs were euthanatized, and meniscal tissue specimens from both stifle joints were collected for gross, histologic, biomechanical, and biochemical evaluations.

Results—Regenerative tissue was evident in 4 (2 SIS-implanted and 2 control) of 16 defects examined histologically. In 3 defects, this thin bridge of tissue was composed of immature haphazardly arranged fibrous connective tissue with a relatively uniform distribution of fibroblasts. Aggregate modulus, Poisson ratio, permeability, and shear modulus were not significantly different between control and SIS-implanted defects either 3 or 6 months after surgery. Hydroxyproline content also did not differ between SIS-implanted and control defects at 3 or 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Implantation of porcine SIS into experimentally induced meniscal lesions in dogs did not promote tissue regeneration. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:427–431)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration.

CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:827–830)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical status and renal and hematopoietic function after kidney donation and identify risks associated with kidney donation in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—14 dogs that underwent unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation.

Procedures—Records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data regarding prenephrectomy clinicopathologic variables. Dogs were reexamined prospectively at various times after nephrectomy, and pre- and postnephrectomy CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio were compared. Six dogs had postnephrectomy renal volume determined ultrasonographically, and 4 of those dogs also underwent scintigraphic determination of glomerular filtration rate and renal biopsy.

Results—All dogs were clinically normal at the time of reevaluation. There were no significant differences between prenephrectomy and postnephrectomy values for BUN concentration or urine specific gravity. Mean postnephrectomy serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than prenephrectomy concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased after nephrectomy, and mean Hct, corpuscular volume, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased after nephrectomy. Postnephrectomy renal volume was greatest in dogs < 12 months old at the time of surgery. Mean postnephrectomy glomerular filtration rate was 2.82 ± 1.12 mL/kg/ min (1.28 ± 0.51 mL/lb/min). Renal biopsy specimens obtained during and after nephrectomy were histologically normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal and hematopoietic variables were within reference ranges in dogs examined up to 2.5 years after unilateral nephrectomy. Compensatory renal hypertrophy was greatest in dogs < 1 year of age at donation. Donor age, along with histocompatability, may be an important factor in selecting dogs for kidney donation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening dyspnea of 9 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Multiple masses in the nasopharynx were detected via endoscopic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens of 1 mass revealed round yeasts with thick nonstaining capsules and occasional narrow-based budding that resembled cryptococcal organisms.

Treatment and Outcome—Oral administration of fluconazole and organic ethylenediamine dihydriodide and intermittent intralesional injections with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and formalin resulted in resolution of lesions for a period of 2.5 years. The horse then developed exophthalmos, recurring clinical signs, and extensive nasopharyngeal masses. The masses were surgically debulked via a large frontonasal bone flap, and the horse was treated with IV injections of amphotericin B and long-term oral administration of fluconazole. Clinical signs did not recur in the following 2-year period. A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made following cytologic and histologic evaluations of the masses; results of serologic analysis and fungal culture confirmed infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

Clinical Relevance—Cryptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract in horses has previously been described as a uniformly fatal disease. As this case report illustrates, medical and surgical treatment of sinonasal cryptococcal granulomas in horses may be successful, but the importance of long-term follow-up and the potential for disease recrudescence should be considered. As efficacious antifungal agents become less expensive, their increased use will likely decrease mortality rates in horses with fungal infections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association