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Abstract

Objective—To determine response rate and reduction in tumor burden and effect of dose on tumor response in dogs treated with neoadjuvant prednisone for cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs).

Design—Combined prospective clinical study and retrospective case series.

Animals—49 dogs with MCT.

Procedures—Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for dogs with primary untreated cutaneous MCT managed with neoadjuvant prednisone administration and surgery. Tumor characteristics and response to treatment were recorded. A subset of dogs assigned to low-dose (LD) treatment with neoadjuvant prednisone (1.0 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or high-dose (HD) treatment (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) was used to determine the effects of dose.

Results—The overall objective response rate was 70% for dogs treated with neoadjuvant prednisone; prednisone dose was not significantly associated with response. Prospectively, the median sum maximal diameter (MaxD) reduction was 45.2%, and reduction in tumor volume was 80.6%. In both treatment groups, the mean percentage MaxD reduction and tumor volume reduction were significant. The difference in response between the LD and HD groups was not significant. The LD group had mean MaxD and tumor volume reductions of 35.4% and 52.5%, respectively, compared with mean reductions of 48.8% in MaxD and 78% in tumor volume in the HD group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with neoadjuvant prednisone appears to be useful for inducing reduction of MCTs and may facilitate resection when adequate surgical margins cannot be confidently attained because of mass location or size or both.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Surgically induced tumor seeding was diagnosed in 8 dogs and 2 cats. All animals had histologic confirmation of neoplasia in an unusual location or pattern, and a history of surgical manipulation of a similar histologic-type tumor at the site of seeding. Highly malignant carcinomas (8/10 animals) were the most common tumor type. Seeding occurred secondary to a variety of surgical procedures and in the face of various adjuvant therapies. Seeded tumors were recognized from 2 to 30 weeks after the causal procedure (median, 6 weeks). Survival times after the causal procedure ranged from 15 to 131 weeks (median, 45 weeks) and 8 of 10 animals died or were euthanatized because of seeded tumors.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in canine feces, various volumes of blood were administered to 6 dogs via orogastric tube. Blood volumes tested were chosen on the basis of hemoglobin quantities of 5, 10, 20, 200, 350, and 500 mg of hemoglobin/kg of body weight. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily and analyzed separately by 2 observers for the presence of occult blood by use of modified guaiac and orthotolodine tablet tests, and for melena by visual inspection. Five dogs given blood at the rate of 500 mg of hemoglobin/kg and 1 dog given blood at the rate of 350 mg of hemoglobin/kg developed melena. Results of both occult blood tests were positive in 2 of 6 dogs given blood at the rate of 5 mg of hemoglobin/kg. Five of 6, and 4 of 6 dogs given blood at the rate of 10 mg hemoglobin/kg had positive test results by modified guaiac and orthotolodine methods, respectively. Results of both methods were positive in all dogs given blood at the rate of 20 mg of hemoglobin/kg. There was 86% agreement between the 2 observers’ results for the modified guaiac method, and 78% agreement for the orthotolodine method. There was 77% agreement of results between the 2 test methods. Gastrointestinal transit time decreased with increasing volumes of blood. Occult blood testing was found to be useful for detection of blood in feces at volumes 20 to 50 times less than that required to cause melena.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To evaluate the effect of diet on results obtained by use of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in feces, 5 dogs were fed 7 diets in randomized sequence. Dry and canned diets with various principal ingredients were evaluated. Each diet was offered twice over a 24-hour period, followed by a 36-hour nonfeeding period. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily, and tests for occult blood were performed within 12 hours. The dietary origin of fecal specimens was confirmed by use of colored markers fed with each diet, and was correlated with estimates of gastrointestinal tract transit time. A modified guaiac paper test and an o-tolidine tablet test were performed on each specimen.

Of 59 specimens, 4 were positive for occult blood, using the o-tolidine tablet test. Three positive results were associated with a mutton-based canned diet, and 1 positive result was associated with a canned beef-based diet. Of 59 specimens, 11 were positive for occult blood, using the modified guaiac paper test. Four positive results were associated with the mutton diet, and 3 positive results were associated with the beef diet. Of the remaining 5 diets, 4 caused 1 positive reaction.

Results were inconsistent with the null hypothesis that the distribution of positive occult blood test results is not affected by diet (P < 0.025), and indicate that diet can affect the specificity of peroxidase-based tests for detection of occult blood in canine feces. Diet modification prior to testing is recommended.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the history, clinicopathologic findings, and results of surgery for effusive-constrictive pericarditis associated with Coccidioides immitis infection in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 client-owned dogs that underwent a subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision.

Procedure—Hospital records from May 1999 to June 2003 were reviewed. Data collected included history, clinicopathologic findings, treatments, and outcome. Follow-up information was obtained via recheck examination and by use of standardized telephone interviews with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—All dogs were of large breeds, and most were male (mean age, 4.66 years). Ten dogs had no prior history of C immitis infection, and 7 dogs had chronic infection with C immitis. Having a chronic C immitis infection reduced the odds of survival, compared with no previous infection. All dogs had clinical signs of right-sided heart failure. All dogs had serum titers (range, 1:8 to 1:256) for antibodies against C immitis prior to surgery, and titers were not significantly associated with outcome. Predominant echocardiographic findings were thickened pericardium, reduced right ventricular filling, and pleural or pericardial effusion. All dogs underwent a subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision and had fibrosing pyogranulomatous pericarditis in biopsy specimens obtained during surgery. The perioperative mortality rate was 23.5%, and the 2-year postdischarge survival rate was 82%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical treatment via subtotal pericardectomy and epicardial excision is successful at relieving right-sided heart failure in dogs with effusive-constrictive pericarditis secondary to C immitis infection, but long-term treatment with antifungal agents may still be required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:435–440)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association