Objective—To correlate clinical score, intrapleural
pressure, cytologic findings of bronchoalveolar lavage
fluid (BALF), and histologic lesions of pulmonary tissue
in horses affected with summer pasture-associated
obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD).
Animals—8 adult horses affected with SPAOPD and
6 adult horses without evidence of respiratory tract
Procedure—Clinical score, change in intrapleural
pressure (ΔPpl) during tidal breathing, results of cytologic
examination and bacteriologic culture of BALF,
and results of histologic examination of pulmonary
parenchyma were evaluated.
Results—Clinical scores for SPAOPD-affected horses
(median, 5.75; range, 4.0 to 7.5) were significantly
greater, compared with clinically normal horses
(median, 2.0; range, 2.0 to 3.0). Cytologic examination
of BALF from SPAOPD-affected horses
revealed predominantly nondegenerate neutrophils.
Histologic lesions were identified throughout pulmonary
tissue and included severe accumulation of
mucus and neutrophils within the small airways,
metaplasia of bronchiolar goblet cells, and mild peribronchial
infiltrate. Histologic examination of specimens
collected via percutaneous biopsy was predictive
of disease and corresponded to findings at postmortem
examination. Clinical score and δPpl were
highly correlated with mucus accumulation in the
airways of affected horses. Peribronchial inflammatory
infiltrate correlated with percentage of neutrophils
in BALF of affected horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical scoring
and ΔPpl provided valid estimates of disease
severity. Findings from cytologic examination of
BALF of SPAOPD-affected horses varied, although,
in most instances, it was diagnostically useful.
Severe mucus accumulation in the airways was the
most remarkable histopathologic finding in SPAOPDaffected
horses. Examination of biopsy specimens
collected from pulmonary parenchyma was consistently
useful in diagnosing SPAOPD. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:167–173)
Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm infection and tick-borne diseases in dogs.
Sample Population—846 serum, plasma, or blood samples obtained from dogs.
Procedures—Samples were evaluated via the in-clinic ELISA to detect antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) antigen. True infection or immunologic status of samples was assessed by use of results of necropsy, an antigen assay for D immitis, and immunofluorescence assay or western blot analysis for antibodies against B burgdorferi, E canis, and A phagocytophilum.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm antigen (99.2% and 100%, respectively), antibodies against B burgdorferi (98.8% and 100%, respectively), and antibodies against E canis (96.2% and 100%, respectively) were similar to results for a similar commercial ELISA. In samples obtained from dogs in the northeast and upper Midwest of the United States, sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp were 99.1% and 100%, respectively, compared with results for an immunofluorescence assay. Samples from 2 dogs experimentally infected with the NY18 strain of A phagocytophilum were tested by use of the in-clinic ELISA, and antibodies against A phagocytophilum were detected by 8 days after inoculation. Antibodies against Anaplasma platys in experimentally infected dogs cross-reacted with the A phagocytophilum analyte. Coinfections were identified in several of the canine serum samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The commercially available in-clinic ELISA could be used by veterinarians to screen dogs for heartworm infection and for exposure to tick-borne pathogens.
Objective—To evaluate microtiter-plate format ELISAs constructed by use of different diagnostic targets derived from the Ehrlichia ewingii p28 outer membrane protein for detection of E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs.
Sample Population—Serum samples from 87 kenneled dogs, 9 dogs experimentally infected with anti-E ewingii, and 180 potentially naturally exposed dogs from Missouri.
Procedures—The capacities of the synthetic peptide and truncated recombinant protein to function as detection reagents in ELISAs were compared by use of PCR assay, western blot analysis, and a full-length recombinant protein ELISA. Diagnostic targets included an E ewingii synthetic peptide (EESP) and 2 recombinant proteins: a full-length E ewingii outer membrane protein (EEp28) and a truncated E ewingii outer membrane protein (EETp28)
Results—A subset of Ehrlichia canis-positive samples cross-reacted in the EEp28 ELISA; none were reactive in the EESP and EETp28 ELISAs. The EESP- and EETp28-based ELISAs detected E ewingii seroconversion at approximately the same time after infection as the EEp28 ELISAs. In afield population, each of the ELISAs identified the same 35 samples as reactive and 27 samples as nonreactive. Anaplasma and E can is peptides used in a commercially available ELISA platform did not detect anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally infected dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The EESP and EETp28 ELISAs were suitable for specifically detecting anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs. [Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1195-1200)