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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Fish medicine has been a relatively small discipline of veterinary attention in the past because of many factors, the most important of which is the perceived value of pet and ornamental fish. As more people invest in expensive species, such as koi and various reef species, the demand to provide a higher level of care for these animals is increasing. This trend is also evident in the commercial food and bait fish industry, where aquaculture producers are expecting improved standards of care for populations of fish that are worth millions of dollars. With increasing numbers of pet and production fish

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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A 7-month-old 25-g (0.055-lb) male calico Oranda goldfish (Carassius auratus) was evaluated because of a rapidly enlarging mass that affected the oral cavity and left operculum. Associated clinical signs included left opercular flaring, progressive gill pallor, left-sided exophthalmia, and suppressed appetite. The fish had been acquired from a retail vendor 1 month earlier; it appeared thin but otherwise outwardly healthy prior to development of these signs a week before the evaluation. The goldfish had been housed in a tank with a sexually mature female fancy goldfish; the fish had spawned twice in the month preceding onset of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize ambulatory electrocardiographic results of overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers and determine associations between those results and development of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—114 (58 male, 56 female) overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers without echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease on initial examination.

Procedure—Echocardiograms and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms (Holter recordings) were obtained initially and at variable intervals. The status (live vs dead) of all dogs was known at least 2 years and as long as 10 years after initial examination (mean [± SD] follow-up time, 4.33 ± 1.84 years). Associations between development of dilated cardiomyopathy and number of ventricular premature contractions (VPC), age, and sex were determined.

Results—55 dogs (48%) did not have VPC on initial Holter recordings, and only 8 dogs had > 50 VPC/24 hours. The likelihood that a dog would have VPC was associated with increasing age and being male. At least 1 VPC/24 hours, and in particular, > 50 VPC/24 hours or ≥ 1 couplet or triplet of VPC/24 hours, were predictive of subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Fifty-four dogs (47%) developed dilated cardiomyopathy; 12 were still alive at the end of the study, and 42 had died. Twenty-five of these 42 dogs died after the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 died suddenly before the onset of overt CHF, and 2 died of noncardiac causes. More males developed dilated cardiomyopathy than females, and dogs that died suddenly were approximately 1 year younger than those that developed CHF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of high-quality Holter recordings may be used to identify overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers that are at a high risk for dilated cardiomyopathy. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:34–39)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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A 12-year-old 62-kg Finn-Shetland crossbreed ewe was euthanized (captive bolt followed by exsanguination from the carotid artery) because of the recent progression of a mammary mass. The ewe was from a small farm flock from which fleeces were harvested yearly. The ewe had not been bred or had any offspring for the past 5 years but was deemed by the owner to have been healthy, with a good appetite, activity level, and behavior. The flock was maintained on pasture (approx 2 acres with paster rotation) year-round, with the diet supplemented by corn and hay during the colder months of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm formation under long-term cell culture conditions in serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs, and to determine whether there is an association between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.

Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs, and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions (60 dogs and 116 cats).

Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of nanobacteria.

Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats, 44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs. Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for biofilm formation was not significantly different between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification processes. Scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate. Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to amplify sequences of nanobacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs and cats. Our findings did not support the existence of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research