Fish medicine has been a relatively small discipline of veterinary attention in the past because of many factors, the most important of which is the perceived value of pet and ornamental fish. As more people invest in expensive species, such as koi and various reef species, the demand to provide a higher level of care for these animals is increasing. This trend is also evident in the commercial food and bait fish industry, where aquaculture producers are expecting improved standards of care for populations of fish that are worth millions of dollars. With increasing numbers of pet and production fish
A 7-month-old 25-g (0.055-lb) male calico Oranda goldfish (Carassius auratus) was evaluated because of a rapidly enlarging mass that affected the oral cavity and left operculum. Associated clinical signs included left opercular flaring, progressive gill pallor, left-sided exophthalmia, and suppressed appetite. The fish had been acquired from a retail vendor 1 month earlier; it appeared thin but otherwise outwardly healthy prior to development of these signs a week before the evaluation. The goldfish had been housed in a tank with a sexually mature female fancy goldfish; the fish had spawned twice in the month preceding onset of
Objective—To characterize ambulatory electrocardiographic
results of overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers
and determine associations between those results
and development of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Animals—114 (58 male, 56 female) overtly healthy
Doberman Pinschers without echocardiographic evidence
of cardiac disease on initial examination.
Procedure—Echocardiograms and 24-hour ambulatory
electrocardiograms (Holter recordings) were
obtained initially and at variable intervals. The status
(live vs dead) of all dogs was known at least 2 years
and as long as 10 years after initial examination (mean
[± SD] follow-up time, 4.33 ± 1.84 years). Associations
between development of dilated cardiomyopathy and
number of ventricular premature contractions (VPC),
age, and sex were determined.
Results—55 dogs (48%) did not have VPC on initial
Holter recordings, and only 8 dogs had > 50 VPC/24
hours. The likelihood that a dog would have VPC was
associated with increasing age and being male. At
least 1 VPC/24 hours, and in particular, > 50 VPC/24
hours or ≥ 1 couplet or triplet of VPC/24 hours, were
predictive of subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Fifty-four dogs (47%) developed dilated
cardiomyopathy; 12 were still alive at the end of the
study, and 42 had died. Twenty-five of these 42 dogs
died after the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF),
15 died suddenly before the onset of overt CHF, and
2 died of noncardiac causes. More males developed
dilated cardiomyopathy than females, and dogs that
died suddenly were approximately 1 year younger
than those that developed CHF.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
high-quality Holter recordings may be used to identify
overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers that are at a high
risk for dilated cardiomyopathy. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc
A 12-year-old 62-kg Finn-Shetland crossbreed ewe was euthanized (captive bolt followed by exsanguination from the carotid artery) because of the recent progression of a mammary mass. The ewe was from a small farm flock from which fleeces were harvested yearly. The ewe had not been bred or had any offspring for the past 5 years but was deemed by the owner to have been healthy, with a good appetite, activity level, and behavior. The flock was maintained on pasture (approx 2 acres with paster rotation) year-round, with the diet supplemented by corn and hay during the colder months of
Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm
formation under long-term cell culture conditions in
serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs,
and to determine whether there is an association
between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.
Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically
normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs,
and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions
(60 dogs and 116 cats).
Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture
conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use
of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy.
A polymerase chain reaction assay was
developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of
Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples
of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats,
44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs.
Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for
biofilm formation was not significantly different
between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions
associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification
processes. Scanning electron microscopy and
spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid
particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate.
Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to
amplify sequences of nanobacteria.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm
cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates
of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in
serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats,
cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose
to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs
and cats. Our findings did not support the existence
of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats,
cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)