Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Stephen A. Smith x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of water temperature on hematologic and biochemical analytes in hybrid striped bass.

Animals

Hybrid striped bass (reciprocal cross; female Morone chrysops × male M saxatilis) maintained in 2,000-L tanks with undergravel filters.

Procedure

Fish were acclimated to 10. 18, 24, and 29 C water for 6 weeks prior to sample collection. Hematologic and serum biochemical profiles were then determined. Values were compared among the various temperatures, and with reference intervals previously determined.

Results

Most values were within or slightly outside the established reference intervals. The following analytes deviated notably from the reference interval: leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were lower than the reference intervals at 10 C; glucose values were lower at 10 and 18 C; calcium values were higher at 10 and 18 C; and total protein, albumin, globulin, and chloride values were higher at 29 C.

Conclusion

Separate reference intervals should be developed for analytes which, because of temperature, deviate notably from the reference interval. Modifications of the established reference intervals, by including fish from varied temperatures, should allow use of one reference interval for analytes, with only slight variation attributable to temperature.

Clinical Relevance

Determining the effects of temperature on the hematologic and biochemical values helps develop clinical pathology as a diagnostic tool in fish. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:126–130)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effects of poor water quality on hematologic and biochemical analytes in hybrid striped bass.

Animals

Hybrid striped bass (reciprocal cross: female Morone chrysops × male M saxatilis) maintained in 2,000-L tanks with undergravel filters.

Procedure

Fish were acclimated to high ammonia (0.15 mg/L) and nitrate (200 mg/L) concentrations for 6 weeks prior to sample collection. Hematologic and biochemical profiles were determined for these fish and for fish kept under normal conditions (control). Comparisons were made among the 3 water qualities and with reference intervals determined previously.

Results

Significant differences in hematologic and biochemical analytes were observed between fish in the various groups; however, most of the values were within established reference intervals. All values from fish in the high ammonia concentration tank were either within the reference interval or not significantly different from control values. Fish from the high nitrate concentration tank had higher serum creatinine values and lower chloride values than did control fish, and both analytes were substantially outside the reference intervals.

Conclusion

High ammonia concentration of 0.15 mg/L did not affect any of the blood analytes measured. The hypercreatininemia and hypochloremia observed in fish from the 200 mg of nitrate/ml tank were considered to be pathologic changes associated with the high nitrate concentration.

Clinical Relevance

Determining the effects of water quality on hematologic and biochemical values helps to develop clinical pathology as a diagnostic tool in fish. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:131–135)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in 6 dogs anesthetized with 1.8% end-tidal halothane, under conditions of eucapnia, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia. Ventilation was controlled in each condition. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, core body temperature, arterial pH, blood gas tensions, end-tidal CO2 tension, and end-tidal halothane concentration were monitored throughout the study. A 21-lead linked-ear montage was used for recording the eeg. Quantitative electroencephalographic data were stored on an optical disk for analysis at a later date. Values for absolute power of the eeg were determined for δ, θ, α, and β frequencies. Hypocapnia was achieved by hyperventilation. Hypercapnia was achieved by titration of 5% CO2 to the inspired gas mixture. Hypercapnia was associated with an increase in the absolute power of the δ band. Hypocapnia caused an increase in the absolute power of δ, θ, and α. frequencies. Quantitative electroencephalographic data appear to be altered by abnormalities in arterial carbon dioxide tension. Respiratory acidosis or alkalosis in halothane-anesthetized dogs may obscure or mimic electroencephalographic abnormalities caused by intracranial disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm formation under long-term cell culture conditions in serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs, and to determine whether there is an association between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.

Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs, and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions (60 dogs and 116 cats).

Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of nanobacteria.

Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats, 44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs. Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for biofilm formation was not significantly different between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification processes. Scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate. Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to amplify sequences of nanobacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs and cats. Our findings did not support the existence of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research