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A 10-year-old castrated male Siberian Husky that had undergone complete excision of an oral plasmacytoma was evaluated because of development of a large oronasal fistula following failure of primary defect repair.


Clinical examination findings for the dog were unremarkable. The dog was receiving nutrition via an esophagostomy tube, which had been placed at the time of mass excision. The dog was notably head shy. Intraoral examination following sedation revealed a large (approx 25 × 20-mm) oronasal fistula, which was oriented craniocaudally in the long axis and located at the rostral aspect of the soft palate. Maturation of tissues had been allowed following failure of the primary repair, and an epithelialized border was identified circumferentially.


10 weeks after mass excision, revision surgery involving 2-layer closure augmented with a polydioxanone plate was performed. At a recheck examination 21 days after revision surgery, near-complete healing of the closure site with no repair compromise was evident, and the dog had returned to oral food intake. A follow-up evaluation 40 weeks later revealed complete healing, with a single 1-mm defect at the medial aspect of the left maxillary dental arcade, as a result of suspected repeated trauma at the level of teeth 209 and 210. This defect was not associated with any clinical abnormalities.


The outcome for this dog indicated that use of a polydioxanone plate offers a means of robust, long-lasting, and absorbable augmentation of a traditional 2-layer repair of an oronasal fistula in this species.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize the magnitude and duration of the antibody response against human albumin (HA) in critically ill and healthy dogs.

Design—Cohort and cross-sectional study.

Animals—Fourteen critically ill dogs that received 25% HA as part of their treatment protocol, 2 healthy dogs with no known previous exposure to HA that received 2 infusions of 25% HA (positive control dogs), and 47 healthy dogs and 21 critically ill dogs with no known exposure to HA (negative control dogs).

Procedures—An ELISA to detect IgG against HA was developed. Serum samples were obtained from the critically ill dogs prior to infusion of HA, at the time of hospital discharge, and 4 to 6 weeks and 6 months after HA administration. Serum samples were obtained at 2- to 4-week intervals from both positive control dogs for 101 weeks. A single serum sample was obtained from each of the negative control dogs.

Results—All 14 critically ill dogs developed serum IgG against HA. Peak antibody response was detected 4 to 6 weeks after HA administration. In both positive control dogs, IgG against HA was detected 10 days after HA administration and continued past 97 weeks. The peak antibody response was detected at 3 weeks in 1 dog and at 9 weeks in the other. Five of the 68 (7%) negative control dogs had a positive antibody response.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs developed a pronounced IgG response following exposure to HA and that some dogs with no history of HA administration were positive for anti-HA IgG.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the quality of recovery in horses emerging from general anesthesia with or without the assistance of a novel device (recovery-enhancing device [RED]) designed to minimize high-energy falls.


20 mixed-breed horses, between July 1, 2023, and January 24, 2024.


A computer-controlled belay system designed to slow the acceleration of a horse during a fall was evaluated in this study. Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: RED (belay, assisted) or FREE (unassisted). An inertia-measuring unit was fitted to all horses and data were live streamed and recorded onto a computer for further analysis. Recoveries were scored using the composite grading scale (CGS; 0 to 100) by 3 independent observers. Two additional unitless recovery scores (RS and RS’), based on accelerometry values (high accelerations, less desirable), were calculated for each recovery. All the recovery scores were compared between the 2 treatment groups.


Composite grading scale scores were 26 ± 10 and 46 ± 13 in the RED and FREE groups, respectively (P = .001). The RS was 120 ± 79 and 198 ± 34 for the RED and FREE treatment groups, respectively (P = .015). The RS’ was 32 (7 to 50) and 46 (28 to 44) for the RED and FREE treatment groups, respectively (P = .038).


The RED improves the recovery scores compared with unassisted recoveries. This device may lead to a potential reduction in the number and severity of injuries in horses and personnel involved during the recovery period.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the hemodynamic consequences of the coadministration of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine with a fentanyl bolus in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy sexually intact male dogs weighing 30.3 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD).

Procedure—Dogs received either fentanyl alone (15.0 µg/kg, IV bolus) or the same dose of fentanyl during an 11-hour CRI of medetomidine (1.5 µg/kg/h, IV). Prior to drug administration, dogs were instrumented for measurement of cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and systemic arterial blood pressures. Additionally, blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery and left atrium for blood gas analysis.

Results—Medetomidine infusion reduced the cardiac index, heart rate, and O2 delivery while increasing left atrial pressure. Subsequent fentanyl administration further decreased the cardiac index. The PaO2 was not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups; however, fentanyl transiently decreased PaO2 from baseline values in dogs receiving a CRI of medetomidine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the prolonged hemodynamic changes associated with the CRI of medetomidine, its safety should be further evaluated before being clinically implemented in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1222–1226)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—6 healthy dogs given human albumin solution as part of a study were examined following development of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction (1 dog) and signs suggestive of a type III hypersensitivity reaction (all 6 dogs).

Clinical Findings—All 6 dogs were healthy prior to administration of human albumin solution. One dog developed signs of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by vomiting and facial edema, during administration of human albumin solution. All 6 dogs developed signs of a delayed adverse reaction 5 to 13 days after administration of human albumin solution. Initial clinical signs included lethargy, lameness, edema, cutaneous lesions indicative of vasculitis, vomiting, and inappetance.

Treatment and Outcome—In the dog with signs of immediate hypersensitivity, signs resolved after administration of human albumin solution was discontinued and diphenhydramine was administered. Supportive treatment was provided after dogs developed signs of a delayed adverse reaction. Four dogs recovered, but 2 dogs died despite treatment. All 6 dogs were found to have antihuman albumin antibodies. There was no evidence of contamination of the human albumin solution.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that administration of human albumin solution in healthy dogs with normal serum albumin concentrations may result in signs of a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research