Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Stephen A. Greene x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
History

A 7.5-year-old 27.5-kg (60.5-lb) castrated male Boxer was referred to the Washington State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and treatment of an abdominal mass. The patient had a 1-month history of exercise intolerance and had developed swelling of the left tarsal joint that resolved following administration of amoxicillin and prednisolone prescribed by the referring veterinarian. The owner reported that the dog had become incontinent and leaked urine when lying down or shifting position. The dog also had hematuria, but the owner reported no straining during urination or defecation, no change in frequency of urination, and no vomiting or

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 9.5-year-old 20.8-kg (45.8-lb) spayed female Border Collie was referred to the Washington State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of excessive and uncontrollable panting. According to the owner, the panting had begun suddenly 2 nights before with no obvious cause. The dog had had a heart murmur for 2 years for which it had been prescribed enalapril (10 mg, PO, q 24 h). The referring veterinarian obtained 2 radiographic views of the thorax to rule out congestive heart failure, but did not notice any radiographic abnormalities, and the dog was subsequently referred to the cardiology service at the

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in cats.

Animals—8 domestic cats.

Procedure—Each cat was anesthetized twice with sevoflurane. First, the MAC of sevoflurane for each cat was determined by use of the tail clamp method. Second, cats were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples administered in random order. Ventilation was controlled, and after a 15- minute equilibration period at each MAC multiple of sevoflurane, BIS data were collected for 5 minutes and the median value of BIS calculated.

Results—The mean (± SD) MAC of sevoflurane was 3.3 ± 0.2%. The BIS values at 0.5 MAC could not be recorded as a result of spontaneous movement in all 8 cats. The BIS values at 2.0 MAC were confounded by burst suppression in all 8 cats. Over the range of 0.8 to 1.5 MAC, BIS values decreased significantly with increasing end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations. Mean (± SD) BIS measurements were 30 ± 3, 21 ± 3, and 5 ± 2 at 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 MAC, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of BIS are inversely and linearly related to end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations in anesthetized cats, and BIS may be a useful predictor of CNS depression in this species. The consistently low BIS values recorded in this study suggest that clinical BIS end points used to titrate anesthetic agents in humans may not be applicable to cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:93–98)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine cardiovascular effects of desflurane in mechanically ventilated calves.

Animals—8 healthy male calves.

Procedure—Calves were anesthetized by face mask administration of desflurane to permit instrumentation. Administration of desflurane was temporarily discontinued until mean arterial blood pressure increased to ≥ 100 mm Hg, at which time baseline cardiovascular values, pulmonary arterial temperature, end-tidal CO2 tension, and end-tidal desflurane concentration were recorded. Cardiac index and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances were calculated. Arterial blood gas variables were measured and calculated. Mean end-tidal concentration of desflurane at this time was 3.4%. After collection of baseline values, administration of 10% end-tidal concentration of desflurane was resumed and calves were connected to a mechanical ventilator. Cardiovascular data were collected at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes, whereas arterial blood gas data were collected at 15 and 45 minutes after collection of baseline data.

Results—Mean ± SD duration from beginning desflurane administration to intubation of the trachea was 151 ± 32.8 seconds. Relative to baseline, desflurane anesthesia was associated with a maximal decrease in arterial blood pressure of 35% and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance of 34%. Pulmonary arterial blood temperature was decreased from 15 through 45 minutes, compared with baseline values. There were no significant changes in other measured variables. All calves recovered from anesthesia without complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of desflurane for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in calves was smooth, safe, and effective. Cardiopulmonary variables remained in reference ranges throughout the study period.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of isoflurane after IM injection of medetomidine or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized 3 times with isoflurane. First, the MAC of isoflurane for each dog was determined by use of the tail clamp method. Second, anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of medetomidine (8 µg · kg–1) or an equal volume of isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution 30 minutes prior to beginning BIS measurements. Last, anesthetized dogs received the remaining treatment (medetomidine or isotonic saline solution). Dogs were anesthetized at each of 4 MAC multiples of isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg followed by 6 µg/kg/min as a continuous infusion, IV) administered. After a 20-minute equilibration period at each MAC multiple of isoflurane, BIS data were collected for 5 minutes and median values of BIS calculated.

Results—BIS significantly decreased with increasing MAC multiples of isoflurane over the range of 0.8 to 2.0 MAC. Mean (± SD) MAC of isoflurane was 1.3 ± 0.2%. During isoflurane-saline anesthesia, mean BIS measurements at 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 MAC were 65 ± 8, 60 ± 7, 52 ± 3, and 31 ± 28, respectively. During isoflurane-medetomidine anesthesia, mean BIS measurements at 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 MAC were 77 ± 4, 53 ± 7, 31 ± 24, and 9 ± 20, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS monitoring in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane has a predictive value in regard to degree of CNS depression. During isoflurane anesthesia, our results support a MAC-reducing effect of medetomidine. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:316–320)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of intratesticular or epidural injection of analgesics for dogs undergoing castration.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—51 healthy male dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to a control group that received analgesics systemically (hydromorphone [0.1 mg/kg {0.045 mg/lb}, IM] and carprofen [4.4 mg/kg {2.0 mg/lb}, SC]; n = 17), an epidural treatment group that received analgesics systemically and morphine (0.1 mg/kg) epidurally (17), or an intratesticular treatment group that received analgesics systemically and bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb]/testis) intratesticularly (17). Dogs were anesthetized and castrated by veterinary students. Responses to surgical stimulation were monitored intraoperatively, and treatments were administered as required. Pain scores were assigned via a modified Glasgow composite pain scale after surgery. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined at various times. Rescue analgesia included fentanyl (intraoperatively) and hydromorphone (postoperatively).

Results—Compared with control dogs, dogs in the intratesticular bupivacaine and epidural morphine treatment groups received significantly fewer doses of fentanyl intraoperatively (11, 1, and 5 doses, respectively) and hydromorphone postoperatively (14, 7, and 3 doses, respectively) and had significantly lower postoperative pain scores (mean ± SEM score at first assessment time, 71 ± 0.5, 4.8 ± 0.2, and 4.5 ± 0.4, respectively). At 15 minutes after removal of the testes, serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than they were immediately prior to surgery for all groups and values for the intratesticular bupivacaine treatment group were significantly lower versus the other 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intratesticular or epidural injection of analgesics improved perioperative analgesia for dogs undergoing castration.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on intracranial pressure and cardiovascular variables at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in mechanically ventilated normocapnic dogs.

Animals—6 healthy male Beagles.

Procedures—The individual MAC was determined for each agent with an electrical stimulus. After a minimum of 1 week, anesthetic induction by use of a mask with one of the inhalation anesthetics selected randomly was followed by mechanical ventilation and instrumentation for measurement of intracranial pressure and cardiovascular variables. Heart rate; systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures; central venous pressure; mean pulmonary arterial pressure; pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; cardiac output; intracranial pressure (ICP); core body temperature; end-tidal inhalation anesthetic and carbon dioxide concentration; and arterial blood gas values were measured after attaining equilibrium at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 MAC of each inhalation anesthetic. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were calculated.

Results—Mean ICP did not differ within and between anesthetics at any MAC. Compared with equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, the CPP and mean values for systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures were increased at 2.0 MAC for sevoflurane, whereas mean values for mean and diastolic arterial blood pressures and systemic vascular resistance were increased at 1.5 MAC for sevoflurane.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although ICP was similar in healthy normocapnic dogs, CPP was better maintained during 2.0 MAC for sevoflurane, compared with isoflurane.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the hemodynamic consequences of the coadministration of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine with a fentanyl bolus in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy sexually intact male dogs weighing 30.3 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD).

Procedure—Dogs received either fentanyl alone (15.0 µg/kg, IV bolus) or the same dose of fentanyl during an 11-hour CRI of medetomidine (1.5 µg/kg/h, IV). Prior to drug administration, dogs were instrumented for measurement of cardiac output, left atrial pressure, and systemic arterial blood pressures. Additionally, blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery and left atrium for blood gas analysis.

Results—Medetomidine infusion reduced the cardiac index, heart rate, and O2 delivery while increasing left atrial pressure. Subsequent fentanyl administration further decreased the cardiac index. The PaO2 was not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups; however, fentanyl transiently decreased PaO2 from baseline values in dogs receiving a CRI of medetomidine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the prolonged hemodynamic changes associated with the CRI of medetomidine, its safety should be further evaluated before being clinically implemented in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1222–1226)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research