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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether dual-energy CT (DECT) could accurately differentiate the composition of common canine uroliths in a phantom model.

SAMPLE 30 canine uroliths with pure compositions.

PROCEDURES Each urolith was composed of ≥ 70% struvite (n = 10), urate (8), cystine (5), calcium oxalate (4), or brushite (3) as determined by standard laboratory methods performed at the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre. Uroliths were suspended in an agar phantom, and DECT was performed at low (80 kV) and high (140 kV) energies. The ability of low- and high-energy CT numbers, DECT number, and DECT ratio to distinguish uroliths on the basis of composition was assessed with multivariate ANOVA.

RESULTS No single DECT measure differentiated all urolith types. The DECT ratio differentiated urate uroliths from all other types of uroliths. The DECT and low-energy CT numbers were able to differentiate between 8 and 7 pairs of urolith types, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that DECT was unable to differentiate common types of canine uroliths in an in vitro model; therefore, it is unlikely to be clinically useful for determining urolith composition in vivo. Given that the primary reasons for determining urolith composition in vivo are to predict response to shock wave lithotripsy and develop a treatment plan, future research should focus on the correlation between DECT measurements and urolith fragility rather than urolith composition.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess whether the risk of development of hypothyroidism after treatment with iodine 131 (131I) was associated with the pattern of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m activity in the thyroid gland detected via scintigraphy before treatment in cats with hyperthyroidism.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—165 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats with hyperthyroidism that had been treated with 131I (from 1990 to 2002) and had undergone scintigraphy of the thyroid gland before treatment were reviewed; data regarding signalment, scintigraphic findings (classified as unilateral, bilateral-asymmetric, bilateral-symmetric, or multifocal patterns), serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations before treatment and prior to hospital discharge, and 131I treatment were collected. A questionnaire was sent to each referring veterinarian to obtain additional data including whether the cats subsequently developed hypothyroidism (defined as serum total T4 concentration less than the lower reference limit ≥ 3 months after treatment).

Results—50 of 165 (30.3%) 131I-treated cats developed hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism developed in 39 of 109 cats with bilateral, 10 of 50 cats with unilateral, and 1 of 6 cats with multifocal scintigraphic patterns of their thyroid glands. Cats with a bilateral scintigraphic pattern were approximately 2 times as likely to develop hypothyroidism after 131I treatment than were cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 4.2).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with hyperthyroidism that have a bilateral scintigraphic pattern in the thyroid gland before 131I treatment appear to have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing hypothyroidism, compared with cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1671–1675)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the ventrodorsal myelographic view can be used to accurately predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) and to describe paradoxical contrast obstruction (PCO).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—104 dogs with Hansen type I IVDE.

Procedures—Ventrodorsal myelographic views were reviewed, and contrast patterns were categorized according to 8 predetermined patterns. Agreement among observers was compared, and the predicted location of extruded disk material was compared with surgical findings.

Results—Agreement regarding myelographic pattern and location of extruded disk material was moderate (κ = 0.74 and 0.80, respectively) among the 4 observers. Ninety-three (89%) dogs had myelographic evidence of lateralized extrusion, and in 83 of the 93 (89%), predicted location of extruded disk material matched the surgically confirmed location. In 33 of the 40 (83%) dogs with bilateral contrast column gaps of unequal length, disk material was found to be located on the side with the shorter, rather than the longer, contrast gap, a phenomenon described as PCO.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the ventrodorsal myelographic view could be used to predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDE more often than previously reported. The PCO phenomenon may be useful in determining the side of lateralization when contrast material does not outline the extruded disk material.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine, by means of MRI, the time to maximal contrast enhancement in T1-weighted images following IV administration of gadoxetic acid in healthy dogs and assess the impact of gadoxetic acid on the signal intensity of T2-weighted images.

ANIMALS 7 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES No hepatic abnormalities were detected during ultrasonographic examination. Each dog was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency for MRI. Transverse T1- and T2-weighted images of the liver were acquired prior to and following (at 5-minute intervals) IV injection of 0.1 mL of gadoxetic acid/kg. Signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was measured in 3 regions of interest in the T1- and T2-weighted images before and at various times point after contrast agent administration. Time versus signal-to-noise ratio curves were plotted to determine time to maximal contrast enhancement and contrast agent–related changes in signal intensity in T2-weighted images.

RESULTS Analysis of T1-weighted images revealed that mean ± SD time to maximal enhancement after gadoxetic acid injection was 10.5 ± 3.99 minutes. Signal intensity of T2-weighted images was not significantly affected by gadoxetic acid administration. No injection-related adverse effects were observed in any dog.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that gadoxetic acid can be used for hepatic MRI in healthy dogs and the resultant hepatic enhancement patterns are similar to those described for humans. Maximal contrast enhancement occurred between 10 and 15 minutes after contrast agent injection; thus, T2-weighted images may be obtained in the interval between injection and maximal enhancement for a more time-efficient clinical protocol.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research