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Problem

A 5-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog weighing 15 kg (33 lb) was brought to the University of Georgia Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital for fixation of a traumatic fracture of the right femur. Physical examination and preanesthetic hematologic evaluation revealed no other abnormalities, and the dog was deemed a suitable candidate for surgery to repair the fracture. The dog was premedicated with glycopyrrolate (0.005 mg/kg [0.002 mg/lb]), hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]), and midazolam (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) administered SC. Anesthesia was induced via IV administration of ketamine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb]) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb]) and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate fluid production and factors associated with seroma formation after placement of closed suction drains in clean surgical wounds in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—77 client-owned dogs with a subcutaneous closed suction drain placed following a clean surgical procedure.

Procedures—Medical records (January 2005 to June 2012) were reviewed, and signalment, site of surgery and underlying disease process, histologic evaluation results, total drain fluid production, fluid production rate (mL/kg/h) at 12-hour intervals, cytologic evaluation of drain fluid, and development of dehiscence, infection, or seroma were recorded. Associations among variables were evaluated.

Results—The most common complication was dehiscence (n = 18), followed by seroma (14) and infection (4). Dogs that developed a seroma had significantly greater total drain fluid volume relative to body weight and greater fluid production rate at 24 and 72 hours as well as the last time point measured before drain removal. Dogs in which drains were removed when fluid production rate was > 0.2 mL/kg/h (0.09 mL/lb/h) were significantly more likely to develop a seroma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seroma formation was more common in dogs with a higher rate of fluid production relative to body weight, but was not associated with the number of days that a closed suction drain remained in situ. Dogs may be at greater risk of seroma formation if their drains are removed while drainage is still occurring at a rate > 0.2 mL/kg/h.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

An 11-year-old 9.9-kg (21.8-lb) neutered male Beagle was evaluated because of a mass in the left ventral cervical region. The mass had been present for approximately 6 months and had recently increased in size. Prior fine-needle aspiration yielded only hemorrhage. Results of recent 3-view thoracic radiography, a CBC, a whole blood biochemical profile, and assessment of whole blood total thyroxine concentration were unremarkable apart from mild thrombocytopenia (112 × 103 platelets/μL; reference range, 170 × 103 platelets/μL to 400 × 103 platelets/μL).

Clinical and Gross Findings

On physical examination, the dog was alert,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine complication rates for elective gonadectomy procedures performed by veterinary students on dogs and cats in an animal shelter, characterize these complications, and compare rates with those for shelter-employed veterinarians (SEVs).

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 10,073 dogs and cats for which gonadectomy was performed by a veterinary student (n = 3,048 surgeries) or SEV (7,025 surgeries) at an urban animal shelter over a 16-month period.

PROCEDURES Electronic medical records for included dogs and cats were reviewed and data collected regarding patient signalment, duration of gonadectomy, surgeon type (student or SEV), and types of surgical complications recorded (including death or euthanasia) during the period from anesthetic induction to 72 hours after surgery. Complication and mortality rates were compared between veterinary students and SEVs.

RESULTS No significant differences were identified between students and SEVs regarding rates of overall complications for both species, minor complications for both species, major complications for both species, and overall complications for dogs or cats specifically. The most common complications were self-limiting, with no long-term consequences, for both students and SEVs. Differences in mortality rates between students and SEVs could not be definitively determined owing to low numbers of nonsurviving patients.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With judicious case selection and as a part of a surgical training program, complication rates for veterinary student–performed gonadectomy procedures for dogs and cats were no different from those for SEV-performed gonadectomy procedures. We believe such information regarding patient outcomes will allow shelter staff to make informed decisions and help them in discussions with stakeholders who may have concerns about student participation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).

ANIMALS

14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.

PROCEDURES

Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.

RESULTS

Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the clinical course and therapeutic response in dogs with coccidioidomycosis treated with fluconazole.

ANIMALS

49 client-owned dogs with coccidioidomycosis that were treated with fluconazole and had ≥ 2 follow-up examinations.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify dogs in which coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed between January 2015 and May 2020. Data recorded from each dog included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, and treatment.

RESULTS

Dogs were treated with fluconazole at a median initial dosage of 19.7 mg/kg/d. Median treatment duration was 298.5 days, with 26 of the 49 dogs completing treatment during the study period. Respiratory signs, lethargy, and hyporexia were the most common clinical signs. Frequency of lethargy decreased after 30 days, whereas frequency of hyporexia and respiratory signs decreased after 90 days. Median IgG titer at diagnosis was 1:32 and was significantly decreased, compared with baseline titer, at all recheck intervals after 90 days. Hyperglobulinemia, monocytosis, and neutrophilia were the most common clinicopathologic abnormalities. Hyperglobulinemia resolved within 30 days, neutrophilia resolved within 90 days, and monocytosis resolved after 180 days.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Improvements in clinical signs, titers, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were observed after initiation of treatment with fluconazole. Improvement began as early as the first 3 months of treatment, but some variables did not resolve until after 6 to 9 months of treatment. This information provides clinical guidance and describes expectations when prescribing fluconazole to treat coccidioidomycosis in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency and severity of complications after corrective surgery in dogs with lateral patellar luxation (LPL) and identify risk factors for reluxation.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—36 client-owned dogs with 47 affected stifle joints.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent surgical correction of LPL at 1 of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Data analyzed included signalment, grade of luxation, orthopedic comorbidities, surgical procedures performed, frequency and type of complications, and whether a second surgery was performed.

Results—A total of 36 dogs with 47 affected stifle joints met the inclusion criteria. Complications were recorded for 24 of 47 (51.1%) stifle joints; there were major complications for 18 of 47 (38.3%) stifle joints. All complications were confirmed through examination by a veterinarian. The most frequent complication was reluxation, which was detected in 10 of 47 (21.3%) stifle joints. Dogs that underwent bilateral surgical repair during a single anesthetic episode had odds of reluxation that were 12.5 times the odds of reluxation for dogs that underwent unilateral surgical repair.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Complication rate after corrective surgery for LPL was high, with reluxation being the most common complication in this population of dogs. Performing staged bilateral surgeries may decrease the risk of reluxation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association