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- Author or Editor: Stephanie G. Nykamp x
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OBJECTIVE To determine whether dual-energy CT (DECT) could accurately differentiate the composition of common canine uroliths in a phantom model.
SAMPLE 30 canine uroliths with pure compositions.
PROCEDURES Each urolith was composed of ≥ 70% struvite (n = 10), urate (8), cystine (5), calcium oxalate (4), or brushite (3) as determined by standard laboratory methods performed at the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre. Uroliths were suspended in an agar phantom, and DECT was performed at low (80 kV) and high (140 kV) energies. The ability of low- and high-energy CT numbers, DECT number, and DECT ratio to distinguish uroliths on the basis of composition was assessed with multivariate ANOVA.
RESULTS No single DECT measure differentiated all urolith types. The DECT ratio differentiated urate uroliths from all other types of uroliths. The DECT and low-energy CT numbers were able to differentiate between 8 and 7 pairs of urolith types, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that DECT was unable to differentiate common types of canine uroliths in an in vitro model; therefore, it is unlikely to be clinically useful for determining urolith composition in vivo. Given that the primary reasons for determining urolith composition in vivo are to predict response to shock wave lithotripsy and develop a treatment plan, future research should focus on the correlation between DECT measurements and urolith fragility rather than urolith composition.
Objective—To assess whether the risk of development of hypothyroidism after treatment with iodine 131 (131I) was associated with the pattern of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m activity in the thyroid gland detected via scintigraphy before treatment in cats with hyperthyroidism.
Procedure—Medical records of cats with hyperthyroidism that had been treated with 131I (from 1990 to 2002) and had undergone scintigraphy of the thyroid gland before treatment were reviewed; data regarding signalment, scintigraphic findings (classified as unilateral, bilateral-asymmetric, bilateral-symmetric, or multifocal patterns), serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations before treatment and prior to hospital discharge, and 131I treatment were collected. A questionnaire was sent to each referring veterinarian to obtain additional data including whether the cats subsequently developed hypothyroidism (defined as serum total T4 concentration less than the lower reference limit ≥ 3 months after treatment).
Results—50 of 165 (30.3%) 131I-treated cats developed hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism developed in 39 of 109 cats with bilateral, 10 of 50 cats with unilateral, and 1 of 6 cats with multifocal scintigraphic patterns of their thyroid glands. Cats with a bilateral scintigraphic pattern were approximately 2 times as likely to develop hypothyroidism after 131I treatment than were cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 4.2).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with hyperthyroidism that have a bilateral scintigraphic pattern in the thyroid gland before 131I treatment appear to have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing hypothyroidism, compared with cats with a unilateral scintigraphic pattern. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1671–1675)
OBJECTIVE To determine, by means of MRI, the time to maximal contrast enhancement in T1-weighted images following IV administration of gadoxetic acid in healthy dogs and assess the impact of gadoxetic acid on the signal intensity of T2-weighted images.
ANIMALS 7 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES No hepatic abnormalities were detected during ultrasonographic examination. Each dog was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency for MRI. Transverse T1- and T2-weighted images of the liver were acquired prior to and following (at 5-minute intervals) IV injection of 0.1 mL of gadoxetic acid/kg. Signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was measured in 3 regions of interest in the T1- and T2-weighted images before and at various times point after contrast agent administration. Time versus signal-to-noise ratio curves were plotted to determine time to maximal contrast enhancement and contrast agent–related changes in signal intensity in T2-weighted images.
RESULTS Analysis of T1-weighted images revealed that mean ± SD time to maximal enhancement after gadoxetic acid injection was 10.5 ± 3.99 minutes. Signal intensity of T2-weighted images was not significantly affected by gadoxetic acid administration. No injection-related adverse effects were observed in any dog.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that gadoxetic acid can be used for hepatic MRI in healthy dogs and the resultant hepatic enhancement patterns are similar to those described for humans. Maximal contrast enhancement occurred between 10 and 15 minutes after contrast agent injection; thus, T2-weighted images may be obtained in the interval between injection and maximal enhancement for a more time-efficient clinical protocol.
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma concentrations and determine adverse ocular, renal, or hepatic effects associated with repeated topical ophthalmic application of 0.1% diclofenac to healthy cats.
ANIMALS 8 healthy sexually intact male cats.
PROCEDURES A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. A topical formulation of 0.1% diclofenac was administered 4 times/d for 7 days to 4 cats, and artificial tear (control) solution was administered to the other 4 cats. After a 12-day washout period, cats received the other treatment. Ophthalmic examinations were performed daily. Plasma samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for pharmacokinetic analysis. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and determination of glomerular filtration rate were performed before the start of the study and after each 7-day treatment period.
RESULTS Mild conjunctival hyperemia was the only adverse ocular effect detected. Maximal drug concentration and area under the curve were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1. Diclofenac-treated cats had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate than did control-treated cats after the second but not after the first treatment period, presumably associated with iatrogenic hypovolemia.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic administration of 0.1% diclofenac was well tolerated in healthy cats, with only mild signs of ocular irritation. Detectable systemic concentrations of diclofenac were achieved with accumulation over 7 days. Systemic absorption of diclofenac may be associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate, particularly in volume-contracted animals. Topical ophthalmic 0.1% diclofenac should be used with caution in volume-contracted or systemically ill cats.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy and effects of labeling equine umbilical cord blood (UCB)– and bone marrow (BM)–derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agent and the detection of labeled MSCs by use of MRI.
Sample—UCB MSCs from placental tissues of 5 foals and BM MSCs from 5 horses.
Procedures—UCB and BM MSC cultures were seeded in duplicate (5,000 cells/cm2). One duplicate was incubated with SPIO (50 μg/mL); the other was processed identically, but without SPIO. Mesenchymal stromal cells were expanded in triplicates for 5 passages and assessed for viability and proliferative capacity, labeling efficacy, and labeled cell proportion. For MRI detection, 5 × 106 labeled BM MSCs from passage 1 or 2 were injected into a collagenase-induced superficial digital flexor tendon defect of an equine cadaveric forelimb from 2 horses.
Results—For passages 1, 2, and 3, labeling efficacy and cell proportion for UCB MSCs (99.6% [range, 98.8% to 99.9%], 16.6% [range, 6.5% to 36.1%], and 1.0% [range, 0.4% to 2.8%], respectively) were significantly higher than for BM MSCs (99.2% [range, 97.8% to 99.7%], 4.5% [range, 1.6% to 11.8%], and 0.2% [range, 0.1% to 0.6%], respectively). Labeling was not detectable after passage 3. Viability of MSCs was not affected, but cell doubling time increased in labeled MSCs, compared with that of unlabeled MSCs. On MRI 3-D T2*-weighted fast gradient echo sequences, decreased signal intensity was observed for BM passage 1 MSCs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine UCB and BM MSCs were labeled with SPIO at high efficiencies.
Objective—To compare the efficacy of canine vaginal impedometry in identifying the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) peak to that of currently used methods (serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy).
Animals—12 sexually intact female dogs.
Procedures—12 mature postpubertal Beagle (n = 3), Beagle-cross (2), and hound-cross (7) bitches ranging from 7.5 to 27.5 kg (16.5 to 60.6 lb) were enrolled in the study. After the onset of spontaneous proestrus, determined on the basis of appearance of serosanguineous vaginal discharge, serum progesterone assays, vaginoscopy, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginal impedometry were performed daily until approximately 4 days after peak LH concentration (day 0) as measured by radioimmunoassay. Vaginal impedometry was compared against serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy as a method for accurately identifying the LH peak and therefore the optimal breeding time. Ten of 12 bitches were bred with subsequent assessment of embryos.
Results—Vaginal impedometry accurately predicted the preovulatory LH peak in 5 of 11 bitches. One bitch was removed from the study because data were not collected. Of the remaining 11 bitches, 6 had their LH peak on the day serum progesterone concentration first exceeded 2 ng/mL. Crenulation scores reached 1 (mean, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.7) on day 0 as expected; however, these scores were not significantly different from those on days −1 or 1. Vaginal epithelial cell populations did not change noticeably on day 0. Nine of the 10 bitches that were bred produced viable embryos.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that daily use of vaginal impedometry in bitches was unreliable as a method for monitoring periovulatory events. All techniques evaluated (ie vaginal impedometry, serum progesterone concentration assays, vaginoscopy and vaginal cytologic evaluation) frequently produced inaccurate results when used individually. Multiple methods should be used to identify optimal breeding time in dogs.