Objective—To describe the epidemiologic features of
Camp-ylobacter infection among cats in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area.
Animals—152 cats examined at 3 private veterinary
clinics and an animal humane society.
Procedures—Fecal samples were submitted for bacterial
culture for Campylobacter spp. To determine the
duration of Campylobacter carriage, follow-up fecal
samples were collected from cats with positive
Campylobacter culture results.
Results—Campylobacter organisms were cultured from
37 of the 152 (24%) fecal samples. Campylobacter isolates
were identified as Campylobacter upsaliensis (29
cats), Campylobacter jejuni (2), and Campylobacter coli
(1); species of the remaining 5 isolates could not be
determined. Campylobacter organisms were isolated
from 36 of the 122 (30%) cats that were ≤ 1 year old but
from only 1 of the 30 (3%) cats that were > 1 year old,
and shedding was more common during the summer
and fall months. No association between Campylobacter
shedding and clinical signs of disease was identified. For
4 of 13 cats from which follow-up fecal samples were
obtained, duration of Campylobacter carriage could not
be determined because Campylobacterorganisms were
isolated from all follow-up samples. For the remaining 9
cats, median duration of Campylobacter carriage was 44
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—C upsaliensis
can commonly be isolated from the feces of overtly
healthy kittens in the Midwest United States. Because
carriage may be prolonged, veterinarians should
encourage good hand hygiene among owners of cats,
especially among owners with new kittens in their
household. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:544–547).
Objective—To assess the number of zoonotic disease
outbreaks associated with animal exhibits and
identify published recommendations for preventing
zoonotic disease transmission from animals to people
in exhibit settings.
Design—Literature review and survey of state public
health veterinarians and state epidemiologists.
Procedure—MEDLINE and agriculture databases
were searched from 1966 through 2000. Retrieved
references and additional resources provided by the
authors were reviewed. A survey was sent to state
public health veterinarians and state epidemiologists
to determine whether their states had written
recommendations or guidelines for controlling
zoonotic diseases in animal exhibition venues,
whether their states maintained a listing of animal
exhibitors in the state, and whether they had any
information on recent outbreaks involving animals in
Results—11 published outbreaks were identified.
These outbreaks occurred in a variety of settings
including petting zoos, farms, and a zoological park.
An additional episode involving exposure to a potentially
rabid bear required extensive public health
resources. A survey of state public health veterinarians
identified 16 additional unpublished outbreaks or
incidents. Most states did not have written recommendations
or guidelines for controlling zoonotic diseases
or any means to disseminate educational materials
to animal exhibitors.
Conclusions—Recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases
associated with contact with animals in exhibition
venues highlight concerns for disease transmission
to public visitors. Only a handful of states have
written guidelines for preventing zoonotic disease
transmission in animal exhibition venues, and published
recommendations currently available focus on
preventing enteric diseases and largely do not
address other zoonotic diseases or prevention of bite
wounds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1105–1109)