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  • Author or Editor: Stephanie A. Pumphrey x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate patterns of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results for dogs with retrobulbar abscesses and generate recommendations for empirical antimicrobial selection.

ANIMALS

133 dogs examined between 2002 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Records were retrospectively reviewed to determine type of bacterial culture, number and type of bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility test results, concurrent and recent antimicrobial exposure, effect of culture results on antimicrobial regimen, and outcome.

RESULTS

Aerobic culture alone was performed in 37 dogs, and aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed in 96 dogs. Isolates were recovered from 96 dogs, with multiple isolates recovered from 54 (56%) of those dogs. Of the 69 dogs for which both aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed and at least 1 isolate was obtained, 34 (49%) had purely aerobic infections, 15 (22%) had mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections, and 20 (29%) had purely anaerobic infections. Pasteurella spp (n = 26), Streptococcus spp (20), and Escherichia coli (12) were the most common aerobic isolates. Bacteroides spp (n = 22), Actinomyces spp (10), and Fusobacterium (10) spp were the most common anaerobic isolates. Susceptibility test results led to changes in the antimicrobial regimen in 37 of 80 (46%) dogs. Of the 76 dogs for which outcome information was available, 78 (97%) recovered.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Multipathogen and anaerobic infections were common in dogs with retrobulbar abscesses. Susceptibility data supported the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate or a combination of clindamycin and enrofloxacin as first-line treatments. Additional study is needed to characterize anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibilities and to compare results of susceptibility testing with in vivo responses to antimicrobial administration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in aqueous humor from ophthalmologically normal dogs and dogs with naturally occurring primary angle-closure glaucoma (cPACG).

SAMPLE

Aqueous humor samples from 12 eyes with cPACG and 18 ophthalmologically normal eyes of dogs.

PROCEDURES

A multiplex fluorescence-based ELISA was used to measure concentrations of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4. Results for eyes with versus without cPACG were compared.

RESULTS

Significantly higher mean concentrations of MMP-1 (45% higher), MMP-2 (55% higher), MMP-3 (39% higher), MMP-8 (79% higher), MMP-9 (29% higher), MMP-10 (60% higher), TIMP-1 (63% higher), and TIMP-2 (136% higher) were detected in aqueous humor from eyes with cPACG, compared with ophthalmologically normal eyes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MMPs and TIMPs have pivotal roles in extracellular matrix turnover and homeostasis in the outflow pathways of the eye. Results of the present study documented higher concentrations of MMPs and TIMPs in aqueous humor samples from dog eyes with late-stage cPACG. Although, to our knowledge, TIMPs have not previously been evaluated in the context of cPACG, the markedly higher concentration of TIMPs in eyes with cPACG suggested that inhibition of proteolysis and extracellular matrix turnover might be a factor in the development of glaucoma in susceptible individuals. However, because the present study used samples from dogs with late-stage cPACG, further work is required to characterize the temporal relationship between MMP and TIMP concentration changes and onset or progression of disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether differences existed between clinically normal dogs and dogs with goniodysgenesis-related glaucoma (GDRG) in serum autoantibodies against optic nerve antigens.

Animals—16 dogs with GDRG, 17 healthy dogs with unremarkable pectinate ligament and iridocorneal angle morphology, and 13 euthanized dogs with no major ocular abnormalities or underlying diseases.

Procedures—Western blotting was performed with optic nerve extracts from the euthanized dogs as an antigen source and serum from clinically normal dogs and dogs with GDRG as a primary antibody (autoantibody) source. Blots were evaluated for presence and density of bands.

Results—Multiple bands were identified on western blots from all dogs with GDRG and all clinically normal dogs, with a high degree of variability among individual dogs. Dogs with GDRG were significantly more likely than healthy dogs to have bands present at 38, 40, and 68 kDa. Dogs with GDRG had significant increases in autoreactivity at 40 and 53 kDa and a significant decrease in autoreactivity at 48 kDa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant differences in serum autoantibodies against optic nerve antigens were found in dogs with versus without GDRG. Although it remains unclear whether these differences were part of the pathogenesis of disease or were sequelae to glaucomatous changes, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that immune-mediated mechanisms play a role in the development or progression of GDRG. However, the high degree of variability among individual dogs and the considerable overlap between groups suggest that the clinical usefulness of this technique for distinguishing dogs with GDRG from clinically normal dogs is likely limited.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association