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  • Author or Editor: Stefania C. Grasso x
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OBJECTIVE To assess the isoflurane-sparing effect of a transdermal formulation of fentanyl solution (TFS) and subsequent naloxone administration in dogs.

DESIGN Experiment.

ANIMALS 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was determined in each dog with a tail clamp method (baseline). Two weeks later, dogs were treated with TFS (2.7 mg/kg [1.23 mg/lb]), and the MAC of isoflurane was determined 4 and 24 hours later. After the 4-hour MAC assessment, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was immediately administered IV and MAC was reassessed. After the 24-hour MAC assessment, naloxone hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb], IV) was immediately administered and MAC was reassessed. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were recorded for each MAC assessment.

RESULTS Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane at 4 and 24 hours after TFS application was 45.4 ± 4.0% and 45.5 ± 4.5% lower than at baseline, respectively. Following naloxone administration, only a minimal reduction in MAC was identified (mean percentage decrease from baseline of 13.1 ± 2.2%, compared with 43.8 ± 5.6% for saline solution). Mean heart rate was significantly higher after naloxone administration (113.2 ± 22.2 beats/min) than after saline solution administration (76.7 ± 20.0 beats/min). No significant differences in other variables were identified among treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The isoflurane-sparing effects of TFS in healthy dogs were consistent and sustained between 4 and 24 hours after application, and these effects should be taken into consideration when anesthetizing or reanesthetizing TFS-treated dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate hemodynamic effects of acepromazine and dexmedetomidine premedication in dogs undergoing general anesthesia induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and assess the influence of these drugs on oxygen-carrying capacity and PCV.

Design—Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs received acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]) or dexmedetomidine (15.0 μg/kg [6.82 μg/lb]) IM. Fifteen minutes later, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained at end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.28% (1 minimum alveolar concentration) for 30 minutes. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at predetermined times. The experiment was repeated 48 hours later with the alternate premedication. Results were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA with a mixed-models procedure.

Results—Bradycardia, hypertension, and significant cardiac output (CO) reduction developed after dexmedetomidine premedication but improved during isoflurane anesthesia. Hypotension developed after acepromazine administration and persisted throughout the isoflurane maintenance period, but CO was maintained throughout the anesthetic period when dogs received this treatment. Oxygen delivery and consumption were not different between treatments at most time points, whereas arterial oxygen content was lower with acepromazine premedication owing to lower PCV during isoflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acepromazine exacerbated hypotension, but CO did not change in dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. Dexmedetomidine reduced CO but prevented propofol-isoflurane–induced hypotension. In general, oxygen-carrying capacity and PCV were higher in dexmedetomidine-treated than in acepromazine-treated dogs anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association