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  • Author or Editor: Steen Bech-Nielsen x
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Summary

Oral treatment regimens of erythromycin stearate and chloramphenicol were evaluated in naturally infected laboratory colony dogs for their efficacies in extinguishing fecal shedding of Campylobacter jejuni. Of the 25 Campylobacter-infected English Foxhounds in the study, 9 were assigned to erythromycin treatment, 9 to chloramphenicol treatment, and 7 to no treatment. Antimicrobials were administered for 12 days. All of the dogs that received erythromycin stearate ceased shedding C jejuni by the fourth day of treatment and remained negative throughout the treatment period. Chloramphenicol was associated with a reduction in shedding from 100% to 57% by the ninth day of treatment. Within 9 days of the discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment, C jejuni was isolated from all chloramphenicol-treated dogs and 89% erythromycin-treated dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine whether a commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion test approved for detecting antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle could be used for sheep.

Design—

Experimental trial.

Sample Population—

Serum samples from 27 sheep confirmed to have paratuberculosis by means of acid-fast staining of smears of ileal mucosa, histologic examination of tissues, or bacteriologic culture; 7 sheep with clinical signs of paratuberculosis; and 55 sheep from 5 uninfected flocks.

Procedure—

Serum samples were tested concurrently with the commercially available test and with a previously validated agar gel immunodiffusion test. Multiple samples collected from 13 infected sheep over a period of 6 years were also tested so that each test's ability to detect onset of seropositivity could be compared.

Results—

For both tests, results for samples from all 55 uninfected sheep were negative, results for samples from 32 of the 34 sheep with paratuberculosis were positive, and results for the remaining 2 sheep with paratuberculosis were negative. Results of both tests were in agreement for 50 of 54 samples obtained from 13 infected sheep over time. The 4 samples for which results of the 2 tests disagreed were the fourth, eighth, and ninth of 10 samples from 1 sheep and the first of 6 samples from a second sheep. For all 4 samples, the commercially available assay yielded a weak-positive result, but the previously described test yielded a negative result.

Clinical Implications—

The commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion test approved for use in cattle may be useful in the differential diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:401-403)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Mycobacterial culture was performed on colostrum, milk, and feces from 126 clinically normal cows of a single herd with high prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Thirty-six (28.6%) cows were determined to be shedding the organism in the feces. Of the 36 fecal culture-positive cows, M paratuberculosis was isolated from the colostrum of 8 (22.2%) and from the milk of 3 (8.3%). Cows that were heavy fecal shedders were more likely to shed the organism in the colostrum than were light fecal shedders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In vitro transferability of pemcillm. strepiomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance from coagulase-negative staphylococci to Staphylococcus aureus and among the former species of bovine mammary gland origin was examined by bacterial mating on filters and by mixed-culture matings in broth and in skim milk. One hundred twenty-six (42 each on filter, in broth, and in skim milk) matings were performed among 37 isolates of different Staphylococcus species. Transfer of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, or erythromycin was not detected. Of 51 matings performed to determine streptomycin-resistance transfer, 9 (3 each on filters, in broth, and skim milk) were successful. Nine strains representing 3 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested as prospective donors of streptomycin resistance. Of these, 2 strains could transfer streptomycin resistance. A double-resistant donor, Shominis, not only transferred its streptomycin resistance to an S chromogenes strain lacking resistance, but also to an S aureus strain already carrying penicillin and tetracycline resistance. The transfer of streptomycin resistance from the donor S hominis, harboring 2 plasmids, to a plasmidless S chromogenes recipient strain was associated with apparent acquisition of the smaller plasmid of the donor by the recipient. The single-resistant donor, S epidermidis 681A, transferred streptomycin resistance to a tetracycline-resistant. S aureus recipient. This strain however failed to transfer its streptomycin resistance to another S aureus, 2 S hyicus, and 1 S xylosus recipient. Frequency of transfer of streptomycin resistance ranged from 1.1 × 10−5 to 1 × 10−4. When transfer of resistance was successful, attempts were made to characterize the transfer process. Conjugation appeared to be the mode of streptomycin-resistance transfer. Transfer of resistance between staphylococci of bovine mammary gland origin appears to be fairly uncommon. However, in view of the limitations of the procedures used, additional in vitro and in vivo work is needed to further assess the role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in dissemination of antibiotic resistance.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seven mature dairy cows from 6 herds were obtained with history, clinical signs of disease, and laboratory findings suggestive of advanced paratuberculosis. A surgically implanted collection chamber was used to obtain peripheral tissue fluid. Blood, mammary gland flush fluid, and collection chamber flush fluid (ccff) samples were obtained 6 times over a 2-week period from each cow. Mononuclear cell-rich portions of these fluids obtained by gradient centrifugation were submitted for bacteriologic culture of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and for total and differential cell counts.

Bacteriologic culture of feces for M paratuberculosis and complete necropsy performed on each cow at the conclusion of the study confirmed the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Numbers of tissue macrophages obtained from ccff samples were lower than expected. Mean (± SD) differential count of tissue macrophages collected from ccff was 65.57 (± 23.39). Mean calculated tissue macrophages (total cell count × differential count) collected from ccff samples was 623.1 (±784.55) cells/μl. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from 1 of 42 (2.4%) collections of mononuclear cell-rich portions of plasma and from 2 of 42 (4.8%) ccff samples. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was not isolated from any collections of mammary gland flush fluid. The collection and processing techniques used in this study did not enhance detection of M paratuberculosis infection in cows with advanced paratuberculosis, beyond that of ileocecal lymph node biopsy or fecal culture.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of pseudorabies in a commercial farrow-to-finish operation on selected production and economic values was estimated. Pseudorabies was first diagnosed in this herd by circle testing done in March 1988, as a required part of follow up from another herd that had been diagnosed with pseudorabies in the area. A pseudorabies virus vaccination program was initiated in the herd at that time.

The mean litter size of pigs born alive varied from 9.26 to 10.02 pigs/litter throughout the study period; however, there was a twofold increase in suckling pig mortality and a 2.6-fold increase in nursery pig mortality when the months of the epizootic were compared with pre-epizootic months. In the 6-month period following the epizootic, suckling pig mortality was threefold higher than that reported in the preepizootic months.

Total net loss for this operation was estimated at $99,700 from when the epizootic started until eradication, when calculating losses directly. The major economic losses (76.5% of total loss) were related to suckling pig mortality, which was $16,240 during the epizootic or $24/inventoried sow/week; $19,395 in the 6 months following the epizootic or $3.8/inventoried sow/week; and $40,628 thereafter until eradication 26 months later or $0.37/inventoried sow/week. Nursery pig mortality losses were 12.6% of total net losses; $754 during the epizootic, $357 in the 6 months after the enzootic, and $11,444 thereafter until eradication 26 months later. Sow culling and deaths accounted for 9.4% of net losses that took place from 6 months after the epizootic until eradication. In that same period, market hog deaths accounted for the remaining 1.2%, or $1,227 of the net losses.

When calculating economic losses indirectly by using hogs marketed/sow/year during, and after the pseudorabies epizootic until eradication, total net losses were $85,520. Losses from decreased hog production was $4,156 during the epizootic and $12,000 for the 6 months following the epizootic. From then until eradication, losses were $3,817 for the last 2 months in 1988, $23,969 for 1989, and $41,578 for 1990.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could survive in colostrum after pasteurization. Additionally, this study investigated the effect pasteurization had on IgG concentration in colostrum.

Animals

Colostrum samples were collected from cattle (beef and dairy) owned by the state of Ohio.

Procedure

Colostrum was divided into aliquots and inoculated with variable concentrations of M paratuberculosis (ATCC No. 19698: 104, 103, and 102 colony-forming units/ml). Half the samples at each concentration were subjected to pasteurization temperatures (63 C) for 30 minutes and the remainder were kept at approximately 20 to 23 C. All samples were incubated (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin J) and observed for growth during the next 16 weeks. Additionally, the IgG concentration of colostrum was determined by radioimmunoassay before and after pasteurization. Samples that coagulated at pasteurization temperatures were mechanically resuspended before measurement of IgG concentration.

Results

Growth of M paratuberculosis was retarded but not eliminated by pasteurization. Growth was observed in all unpasteurized samples incubated on Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J but in only 2 of 18 pasteurized samples similarly cultured. Growth from pasteurized samples appeared 5 to 9 weeks after growth was observed from nonpasteurized samples.

Mean colostral IgG concentration was 44.4 g/L in nonpasteurized samples and 37.2 g/L in pasteurized sample, a decrease of 12.3%. High-quality colostrum (> 48 g of IgG/L) had a significantly greater loss of IgG concentration than did colostrum of lesser quality (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Pasteurization lessened, but did not eliminate, growth of M paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated colostrum samples. Pasteurization resulted in a significant decrease in colostral IgG concentration but not to an unmanageable level that would preclude the colostrum's use for passive transfer of immunity.

Clinical Relevance

Colostrum is macrophage rich and may serve as a source of M paratuberculosis infection to calves. Pasteurization of colostrum may lessen the risk of infection, but will not totally eliminate M paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1580–1585)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research