Objective—To validate use of stress MRI for evaluation of stifle joints of dogs with an intact or deficient cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).
Sample—10 cadaveric stifle joints from 10 dogs.
Procedures—A custom-made limb-holding device and a pulley system linked to a paw plate were used to apply axial compression across the stifle joint and induce cranial tibial translation with the joint in various degrees of flexion. By use of sagittal proton density–weighted MRI, CrCL-intact and deficient stifle joints were evaluated under conditions of loading stress simulating the tibial compression test or the cranial drawer test. Medial and lateral femorotibial subluxation following CrCL transection measured under a simulated tibial compression test and a cranial drawer test were compared.
Results—By use of tibial compression test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 9.6 ± 3.7 mm and 10 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. By use of cranial drawer test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 8.3 ± 3.3 mm and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. No significant difference in femorotibial subluxation was found between stress MRI techniques. Femorotibial subluxation elicited by use of the cranial drawer test was greater in the lateral than in the medial compartment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both stress techniques induced stifle joint subluxation following CrCL transection that was measurable by use of MRI, suggesting that both methods may be further evaluated for clinical use.
To evaluate owner adherence to recommendations for follow-up examination of dogs and cats following orthopedic procedures and identify factors associated with adherence versus nonadherence.
Medical records of 485 dogs and cats that underwent orthopedic surgery.
Cases were categorized as urgent or elective. Information obtained from the medical records consisted of species, age, body weight, proximity to the hospital, procedure cost, recommendations for coaptation, use of financial aid, and number of owners. Cases were considered adherent to follow-up recommendations if, at the latest visit or communication, no further visits were recommended. Cases were considered nonadherent if owners did not return for recommended follow-up visits.
Overall adherence to follow-up recommendations was 65.8% (319/485). Elective cases were 1.6 times as likely to be adherent to follow-up recommendations as were urgent cases, dog cases were 2.4 times as likely to be adherent as were cat cases, and cases with multiple owners listed were 2.1 times as likely to be adherent as were cases with 1 owner listed. Distance from the hospital had a statistically significant association with adherence, but the effect was not clinically important. Age, weight, coaptation, procedure cost, and use of financial aid were not significantly associated with adherence.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The percentage of dogs and cats lost to follow-up following orthopedic surgery at an academic veterinary teaching hospital was substantial (166/485 [34.2%]). Efforts to improve follow-up adherence are especially indicated for animals undergoing urgent procedures, animals with single owners, and cats.
OBJECTIVE To determine short- and long-term outcomes and complications of dogs undergoing surgical correction of grade IV medial patellar luxation (MPL).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 24 dogs (29 stifle joints) that underwent surgical correction of grade IV MPL between March 2008 and April 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs were reviewed. When available, long-term follow-up information was obtained for each dog via the orthopedic surgeon (results of orthopedic examination and radiographic interpretation) and the dog's owner (responses to a questionnaire regarding postsurgical outcomes). Types of postsurgical complications and intervals to follow-up data collection were recorded. Recurrence of MPL was recorded separately. Successful outcome was defined as one without catastrophic complication, with owner-reported full or acceptable return to function and a surgeon- and owner-assigned pain or lameness score < 3.
RESULTS 24% (7/29) of stifle joints had major complications, and 21% (6) of joints required surgical revision. Grade II to IV recurrence of MPL was identified in 21% (6) of stifle joints. One dog had a catastrophic complication requiring limb amputation. For all other dogs, owner-reported return to function was full or acceptable. Surgeon-assigned pain and lameness scores for all dogs at the final follow-up evaluation were < 2/5 (0 = pain or lameness free). Surgical correction of grade IV MPL had an overall success rate of 93% (27/29).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical correction of grade IV MPL in dogs had a favorable overall success rate; however, owners should be counseled regarding the high rate of complications associated with surgery.
Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.
Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.
Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.
Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.
To compare initial leak pressure (ILP) between cadaveric canine and synthetic small intestinal segments that did and did not undergo enterotomy.
Eight 8-cm grossly normal jejunal segments from 1 canine cadaver and eight 8-cm synthetic small intestinal segments.
Intestinal segments were randomly assigned to undergo enterotomy (6 cadaveric and 6 synthetic segments) or serve as untreated controls (2 cadaveric and 2 synthetic segments). For segments designated for enterotomy, a 2-cm full-thickness incision was created along the antimesenteric border. The incision was closed in a single layer with 4-0 suture in a simple continuous pattern. Leak testing was performed with intestinal segments occluded at both ends and infused with dilute dye solution (999 mL/h) until the solution was observed leaking from the suture line or serosal tearing occurred. Intraluminal pressure was continuously monitored. The ILP at construct failure was compared between cadaveric and synthetic control segments and between cadaveric and synthetic enterotomy segments.
Mean ± SD ILP did not differ significantly between cadaveric (345.11 ± 2.15 mm Hg) and synthetic (329.04 ± 24.69 mm Hg) control segments but was significantly greater for cadaveric enterotomy segments (60.77 ± 15.81 mm Hg), compared with synthetic enterotomy segments (15.03 ± 6.41 mm Hg).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Leak testing should not be used to assess the accuracy or security of enterotomy suture lines in synthetic intestinal tissue. Synthetic intestinal tissue is best used for students to gain confidence and proficiency in performing enterotomies before performing the procedure on live animals.
To report clinical experience using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and surgical application of 3D printed custom surgical guides to facilitate uni- and biapical correction of antebrachial deformities in dogs.
11 dogs (13 antebrachial deformity corrections).
Using CT-based bone models, VSP was performed, and surgical guides were designed and 3D printed. The guides were used to execute osteotomies and align bone segments. Postoperative CTs were obtained to compare limb alignment with the VSP. Long-term assessment of lameness and cosmesis were compared with preoperative status.
Guides were successfully utilized and postoperative analysis was available for 10 of 13 deformities. Guides were abandoned in 2 deformities due to soft tissue tension. Evaluation of postoperative frontal, sagittal, axial, and translational limb alignment revealed that over 90% of parameters were within the acceptable range of ≤ 5° angulation and rotation or ≤ 5 mm of translation from the VSP. Lameness scores were improved in 7/8 deformities with associated preoperative lameness, and posture was improved in 10/10 deformities in which guides were deployed. Complications included reduced range of carpal motion (n = 2), implant sensitivity (n = 2), fracture (n = 1), and tendon laceration (n = 1).
VSP and customized surgical guide application facilitated accurate antebrachial limb deformity correction in the majority of deformities in this case series. The use of VSP and 3D printed guides would appear to be a viable and accurate approach for correction of both uni- and biapical antebrachial deformities in dogs.
3 adult Basset Hounds were referred for evaluation of chronic, unilateral, pelvic limb lameness with no history of trauma.
On examination, all dogs had mild lameness of the affected limb; signs of pain were evident during manipulation of the stifle joint in the affected limb, along with effusion of that joint. No stifle joint instability was palpable. Radiographs were available for review for 2 of the 3 dogs. Effusion was confirmed radiographically, but severity of degenerative joint disease varied. Central intercondylar notch width ratios for the 2 dogs were 0.16 and 0.17, and tibial plateau angles were −10° and 15°; relative tibial tuberosity width was 1.1 for both dogs. Exploratory arthroscopy revealed moderate degeneration of the caudal cruciate ligament in all 3 dogs; the cranial cruciate ligaments were grossly normal.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Corrective osteotomy to increase the tibial plateau angle was performed in 1 dog, and the lameness resolved by 2 months after surgery. The 2 other dogs were managed without additional surgery. One dog was persistently lame. The other dog reportedly had normal limb function 2.5 years after undergoing exploratory arthroscopy.
Morphological characteristics of the tibia in Basset Hounds may predispose to abnormal stresses on the caudal cruciate ligament. Isolated degeneration of the caudal cruciate ligament should be considered as a differential diagnosis for Basset Hounds with lameness originating from the stifle joint. Without direct inspection of the joint, caudal cruciate ligament disease could be confused for cranial cruciate ligament injury.
OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.
SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs.
PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure.
RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.