You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for
- Author or Editor: Stacy E. Andrew x
- Refine by Access: All Content x
Objective—To determine density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas.
Animals—36 llamas and 20 alpacas.
Procedure—Both eyes were examined in each camelid. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonographic pachymetry. Vertical and horizontal corneal diameters were measured, using Jameson calipers.
Results—Values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes from the same camelid. There was no significant effect of sex on density of corneal endothelial cells or corneal thickness in either species. Mean density of endothelial cells was 2,669 cells/mm2 in llamas and 2,275 cells/mm2 in alpacas. Density of endothelial cells decreased with age in llamas. Polymegathism was observed frequently in both species. Mean corneal thickness was 608 µm for llamas and 595 µm for alpacas. Corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells were negatively correlated in llamas. Older (> 36 months old) llamas had significantly larger horizontal and vertical corneal diameters than younger llamas, and older alpacas had a significantly larger vertical corneal diameter than younger alpacas.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Density of corneal endothelial cells is only slightly lower in camelids than other domestic species. Density of endothelial cells decreases with age in llamas. Age or sex does not significantly affect corneal thickness in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. Specular microscopy is useful for determining density of corneal endothelial cells in normal eyes of camelids. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:326–329)
Objective—To determine density of corneal endothelial cells and corneal thickness in eyes of euthanatized horses.
Sample Population—52 normal eyes from 26 horses.
Procedure—Eyes were enucleated after horses were euthanatized. Eyes were examined to determine that they did not have visible ocular defects. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonic pachymetry or specular microscopy.
Results—Mean density of corneal endothelial cells was 3,155 cells/mm2. Cell density decreased with age, but sex did not affect cell density. Values did not differ significantly between right and left eyes from the same horse. Cell density of the ventral quadrant was significantly less than cell density of the medial and temporal quadrants. Mean corneal thickness was 893 µm. Sex or age did not affect corneal thickness. Dorsal and ventral quadrants were significantly thicker than the medial and temporal quadrants and central portion of the cornea. We did not detect a correlation between corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells in normal eyes of horses.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Density of corneal endothelial cells decreases with age, but corneal thickness is not affected by age or sex in normal eyes of horses. The technique described here may be useful for determining density of endothelial cells in the cornea of enucleated eyes. This is clinically relevant for analyzing corneal donor tissue prior to harvest and use for corneal transplantation. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:(479–482)
Objective—To examine postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) and other variables as predictors of the risk of developing glaucoma after cataract surgery in dogs.
Animals—220 dogs that had cataract surgery.
Procedure—Medical records of 220 dogs (346 eyes) that had extracapsular cataract removal or phacoemulsification of cataracts were reviewed. With respect to glaucoma development, 8 variables were analyzed, which included development of POH, breed, sex, age at time of surgery, eye (right vs left), phacoemulsification time, intraocular lens (IOL) placement (yes or no), and stage of cataract development. Eyes developed glaucoma within 6 or 12 months of surgery or did not have signs of glaucoma at least 6 or 12 months after cataract surgery.
Results—Of 346 eyes, 58 (16.8%) developed glaucoma after surgery. At 6 months, 32 of 206 (15.5%) eyes examined had glaucoma; at 12 months, 44 of 153 (28.8%) eyes examined had glaucoma. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range, 0.1 to 48 months). Mixed-breed dogs were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with other breeds. Eyes with IOL placement were at a significantly lower risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes without IOL placement. Eyes with hypermature cataracts were at a significantly higher risk for glaucoma, compared with eyes with mature or immature cataracts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple factors appear to contribute to the onset of glaucoma in dogs after cataract surgery. Complications prohibiting IOL placement during cataract surgery may lead to a high risk of glaucoma development. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1780–1786)
Objective—To examine in vitro effects of various antiproteolytic compounds on activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in the tear film of horses with active corneal ulcers.
Sample Population—Samples of tear film obtained from the eyes of 34 horses with active ulcerative keratitis.
Procedure—Horses were sedated, and tear samples were collected from the lower fornix of 34 ulcerated eyes by use of capillary tubes. The protease inhibitors 0.2% EDTA, 0.1% doxycycline, 10% N-acetylcysteine (NAC), 0.1% solution of a modified dipeptide that contains hydroxamic acid (ie, ilomostat), 0.1% α1-proteinase inhibitor (PI), 0.5% α1-PI, and 100% fresh equine serum (ES) were used to treat pooled samples. Amount of latent and active MMP-2 and -9 was measured by optical density scanning of gelatin zymograms of treated and untreated tear samples.
Results—Pooled tear samples obtained from ulcerated eyes contained the latent and active forms of MMP-2 and -9. Compared with MMP activity in untreated samples, total MMP activity (sum of all bands detected) observed on the gelatin zymogram gels was reduced by 99.4% by EDTA, 96.3% by doxycycline, 98.8% by NAC, 98.9% by ilomostat, 52.4% by 0.1% α1-PI, 93.6% by 0.5% α1-PI, and 90.0% by ES.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We documented that EDTA, doxycycline, NAC, ilomostat, α1- PI, and ES inhibited MMP activity in vitro. Because these compounds use different mechanisms to inhibit various families of proteases in the tear film of horses, a combination of these protease inhibitors may be beneficial for treatment of corneal ulcers in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1081–1087)