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Objective—To describe the technique and evaluate short- and long-term outcomes in female dogs after endoscopic-guided laser ablation (ELA) of various vestibulovaginal septal remnants (VVSRs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—36 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with VVSRs that underwent ELA were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent complete cystourethrovaginoscopy for diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopic-guided laser ablation (with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet or diode laser) was used to transect the vaginal membrane. Patients with intramural ectopic ureters were concurrently treated with ELA of their ectopic ureters. Endoscopy was repeated 6 to 8 weeks after ELA of vaginal remnants in some patients, and the procedure sites were reassessed.

Results—36 female dogs with persistent paramesonephric septal remnants (n = 19), vaginal septa (11), or dual vaginas (6) were included. Twenty-six dogs had urinary incontinence, 2 had recurrent UTIs, and 8 had both. Thirty of 36 (83%) dogs had concurrent ectopic ureters. Endoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed with holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet and diode lasers in 8 and 28 dogs, respectively. Five dogs had mild postoperative dysuria for < 24 hours. One patient developed a complication involving inadvertent laser perforation of the vaginal wall. There were no negative effects from this event, and the perforation was fully healed within 8 weeks. At the time of follow-up, all defects were fully healed with no sign of recurrence in the 18 (50%) patients reevaluated. There was a significant improvement in continence scores and a significantly decreased incidence of UTIs after ELA. The median follow-up time was 34 months (range, 8 to 57 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevence—The results of the present study indicated that ELA provided an effective, safe, and minimally invasive treatment option for various VVSRs in dogs, avoiding the need for more invasive surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine outcome for dogs and cats with benign nasopharyngeal stenosis or an imperforate nasopharynx that underwent balloon dilatation or metallic stent placement.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 15 dogs and 31 cats.

PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and data on signalment, history, clinical signs, lesion location, treatment, and outcome were obtained. Patients were excluded if < 6 months of follow-up information was available.

RESULTS 5 dogs and 22 cats underwent balloon dilatation, and results were successful in 11 (0 dogs and 11 cats) of the 27 (41%). Stents were placed in 34 patients (including 15 in which balloon dilatation had been unsuccessful). Uncovered stents were placed in 30 patients, and results were successful in 20 (67%). Covered stents were placed in 11 patients (including 7 in which uncovered stent placement was unsuccessful), and results were successful in all 11. Twenty-three of the 34 (68%) patients in which stents were placed developed complications. The most common complications were tissue ingrowth (n = 10), chronic infection (7), and stent fracture (5) for the 30 patients with uncovered stents and chronic infection (8) and oronasal fistula (3) for the 11 patients with covered stents. Overall, outcome was successful in 36 of the 46 (78%) patients (median follow-up time, 24 months; range, 2 to 109 months).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that in dogs and cats, nasopharyngeal stenosis and imperforate nasopharynx can be successfully treated with balloon dilatation or stent placement, but that there was a high risk of failure with balloon dilatation alone and a high risk of complications regardless of procedure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate agreement of blood glucose concentrations measured in juvenile white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) by use of 2 point-of-care (POC) blood glucose meters and 1 portable chemistry analyzer with values obtained in serum by use of a standard laboratory chemistry analyzer, and to evaluate agreement between results obtained with the 2 POC meters.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Sample—14 venous blood samples from 14 healthy white-tailed deer fawns.

Procedures—Blood glucose concentration was measured with each of 2 POC meters. The remainder of the sample was divided into 2 tubes (1 that contained lithium heparin and 1 with no anticoagulant). Glucose concentration in anticoagulated whole blood was measured with the portable analyzer. Serum was collected from the remaining sample for measurement of glucose concentrations with the laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement.

Results—Agreement between POC blood glucose meters and the laboratory analyzer was poor; mean values for bias were 2.9 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −70.2 to 76.0 mg/dL) and −30.8 mg/dL (95% LOA, −111.6 to 49.9 mg/dL), respectively. Agreement between the 2 POC meters was also poor (bias, 31.0 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −47.2 to 109.2 mg/dL). Agreement between the portable analyzer and the laboratory analyzer was good (bias, −1.6 mg/dL; 95% LOA, −15.3 to 12.1 mg/dL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the POC blood glucose meters used in this study are not appropriate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in juvenile white-tailed deer.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association