Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Stacy Anderson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas.

Animals—36 llamas and 20 alpacas.

Procedure—Both eyes were examined in each camelid. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonographic pachymetry. Vertical and horizontal corneal diameters were measured, using Jameson calipers.

Results—Values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes from the same camelid. There was no significant effect of sex on density of corneal endothelial cells or corneal thickness in either species. Mean density of endothelial cells was 2,669 cells/mm2 in llamas and 2,275 cells/mm2 in alpacas. Density of endothelial cells decreased with age in llamas. Polymegathism was observed frequently in both species. Mean corneal thickness was 608 µm for llamas and 595 µm for alpacas. Corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells were negatively correlated in llamas. Older (> 36 months old) llamas had significantly larger horizontal and vertical corneal diameters than younger llamas, and older alpacas had a significantly larger vertical corneal diameter than younger alpacas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Density of corneal endothelial cells is only slightly lower in camelids than other domestic species. Density of endothelial cells decreases with age in llamas. Age or sex does not significantly affect corneal thickness in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. Specular microscopy is useful for determining density of corneal endothelial cells in normal eyes of camelids. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:326–329)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on apoptosis of equine neutrophils in vitro.

SAMPLE Venous blood samples from 40 adult horses.

PROCEDURES Neutrophils were isolated from blood samples and cultured with or without LPS from Escherichia coli O55:B5 for 12 or 24 hours. Neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by use of cytologic examination, annexin V and propidium iodide staining quantified with flow cytometry, coincubation with inducers of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis or a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 inhibitor, and measurement of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities.

RESULTS Treatment with LPS resulted in a significant delay in apoptosis after incubation for 12 and 24 hours (neutrophils from blood samples of 40 horses). There was a significant correlation between increases in LPS dose and decreases in apoptosis after incubation for 24 hours (3 experiments, each of which involved neutrophils obtained from the same 3 horses at 3 separate times). Caspase-9 activity, but not caspase-3 or -8 activity, was significantly reduced in LPS-treated neutrophils after incubation for 12 hours (neutrophils from blood samples of 17 horses). Treatment with a TLR4 inhibitor or intrinsic and extrinsic inducers of apoptosis prevented LPS-delayed apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE LPS treatment delayed apoptosis of equine neutrophils in vitro for up to 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner by alteration of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and was dependent on TLR4 signaling. Increased neutrophil life span may contribute to the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome in endotoxemic horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research