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  • Author or Editor: Stéphane Junot x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of adverse effects associated with epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery and evaluate effects of epidural administration of morphine on postoperative pain severity.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—242 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedure—Morphine with or without bupivacaine was administered prior to surgery with a Tuohy needle, spinal needle, or epidural catheter. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine were compared with results of systemic administration of oxymorphone and ketoprofen.

Results—The delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower in animals given morphine and bupivacaine than in animals given morphine alone. Analgesia was of significantly longer duration in dogs given morphine and bupivacaine than in dogs given morphine alone. During anesthesia, mild respiratory and cardiovascular depression was reported. Seven dogs and 2 cats had urine retention, and 2 dogs developed pruritus. Six dogs vomited when a second dose of morphine was given epidurally the day after surgery. Eight of 72 dogs had delayed hair growth. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, the delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower and the duration of analgesia was significantly longer when morphine with or without bupivacaine was given epidurally than when oxymorphone and ketoprofen were given.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine is a safe and effective method of inducing long-lasting analgesia in dogs and cats and is superior to standard management of postoperative pain with repeated injection of oxymorphone and ketoprofen. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:666–672)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the sublingual microcirculation between healthy horses anesthetized for elective procedures and horses with colic anesthetized for abdominal surgery and to determine the effect of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) on the microcirculation.

ANIMALS

9 horses in the elective group and 8 horses in the colic group.

PROCEDURES

Sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream dark field video microscopy. Videos were captured at 3 time points during anesthesia. Recorded microvasculature parameters were De Backer score (DBS), total density of perfused vessels (PVD) and small vessels (PVD-S), total proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) and small vessels (PPV-S), vascular flow index (MFI), and heterogeneity index (HI). Blood pressure during hypotensive (MAP < 60 mm Hg) and normotensive (MAP ≥ 60 mm Hg) episodes was also recorded.

RESULTS

During normotensive episodes, the elective group had significantly better PPV and PPV-S versus the colic group (median PPV, 76% vs 50%; median PPV-S, 73% vs 51%). In both groups, PPV decreased during anesthesia (elective group, −29%; colic group, −16%) but significantly improved in the elective group 15 minutes before the end of anesthesia (59%). During hypotensive episodes, PVD-S was better preserved in the colic group (11.1 vs 3.8 mm/mm2). No differences were identified for the microcirculatory parameters between normo- and hypotensive episodes in the colic group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sublingual microcirculation was better preserved in healthy horses anesthetized for elective procedures than in horses with colic anesthetized for abdominal surgery despite resuscitation maneuvers. Results indicated that the macrocirculation and microcirculation in critically ill horses may be independent.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research