Objective—To determine cell membrane receptors involved in phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms.
Sample Population—Monocytes were obtained from healthy adult Holstein dairy cows that were test negative for MAP infection on the basis of bacteriologic culture of feces and serologic test results.
Procedures—Monocytes or bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) cells were incubated with MAP organisms for 30, 60, or 120 minutes with or without inhibitors of integrins, CD14, or mannose receptors. Phagocytosis was evaluated by light microscopy or by flow cytometry. CD11a/CD18, CD11b, and CD14 expression on monocytes and BoMac cells was evaluated by use of flow cytometry.
Results—Monocytes and BoMac cells rapidly phagocytized MAP organisms. However, compared with BoMac cells, monocytes had a greater total capacity to phagocytize MAP organisms. Addition of neutralizing anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b) substantially inhibited phagocytosis by monocytes during the first 60 minutes of incubation with MAP organisms, but were less effective at 120 minutes of incubation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b antibodies were less effective in inhibiting phagocytosis by BoMac cells. Addition of inhibitors of CD14 or mannose receptors also inhibited phagocytosis of MAP by monocytes. Addition of a combination of integrin and mannose inhibitors had an additive effect in reducing phagocytosis, but addition of integrin and CD14 inhibitors did not have an additive effect.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple receptors are involved in phagocytosis of MAP organisms. Although CD11/CD18 receptors appear to be the major receptors used by MAP at early time points, mannose receptors and CD14 also contribute substantially to phagocytosis.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of tylosin on C-reactive protein concentration, carriage of Salmonella enterica, and antimicrobial resistance genes in commercial pigs.
Animals—120 pigs on 2 commercial farms.
Procedures—A cohort of sixty 10-week-old pigs in 4 pens/farm (15 pigs/pen) was randomly selected. Equal numbers of pigs were given feed containing tylosin (40 μg/g of feed) for 0, 6, or 12 weeks. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial resistance genes in feces were quantified.
Results—No significant associations were detected between C-reactive protein concentration or S enterica status and tylosin treatment. During the 12 weeks of tylosin administration, increased levels of 6 antimicrobial resistance genes did not occur.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of pigs with tylosin did not affect C-reactive protein concentration or reduce carriage or load of S enterica. There was no evidence that pigs receiving tylosin had increased carriage of the 6 antimicrobial resistance genes measured.
Impact for Human Medicine—S enterica is a public health concern. Use of the antimicrobial growth promoter tylosin did not pose a public health risk by means of increased carriage of S enterica.
Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.
Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.
Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.
Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.
OBJECTIVE To develop a noninvasive biomarker-based detection system specific for Mycobacterium bovis for monitoring infection in wild animals.
SAMPLE Serum samples from 8 experimentally infected yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and 3 age-matched control deer and from 393 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources hunter-harvested white-tailed deer in northwest Minnesota.
PROCEDURES 8 yearling deer were inoculated with 2 × 108 CFUs of virulent M bovis strain 1315 (day 0), and sera were obtained on days 0, 19, 48, and 60; sera were obtained from 3 uninoculated control deer on those same days. Sera from these deer and 9 M bovis-positive hunter-harvested deer were tested for 3 Mycobacterium-specific biomarkers (MB1895c, MB2515c, and polyketide synthase 5) by use of an indirect ELISA. That same ELISA was used to test sera obtained from 384 exposed noninfected deer in northwest Minnesota from 2007 through 2010, concurrent with an outbreak of tuberculosis involving cattle and deer in that region.
RESULTS ELISA results revealed that tuberculosis infection could be detected as early as 48 days after inoculation in experimentally infected deer. Results for 384 deer sera revealed that prevalence of tuberculosis decreased over the 4-year period.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the prevalence of tuberculosis in Minnesota deer decreased after 2009 but tuberculosis may have persisted (as subclinical disease) at extremely low levels, as indicated by the presence of low concentrations of circulating biomarkers. Biomarker-based diagnostic tests may offer a specific approach for early identification of M bovis infection.