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Abstract

Objective—To determine the organisms most commonly isolated from pleural fluid from dogs and cats with pyothorax.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—51 dogs and 47 cats.

Procedure—Results of bacteriologic culture of pleural fluid samples obtained by means of thoracentesis were obtained from medical records. To obtain information on in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms commonly isolated from dogs and cats, records of all dogs and cats examined during 1998 were reviewed, and information was obtained on identity and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic organisms isolated from samples other than urine or urinary tract samples.

Results—Median ages of dogs and cats were 4 years. Bacteria were isolated from pleural fluid samples from 47 of 51 (92%) dogs and 45 of 47 (96%) cats. Obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 28 dogs and 40 cats. A mixture of obligate anaerobic and facultative bacteria was isolated from 17 dogs and 20 cats. Samples from cats most often yielded a member of the nonenteric group (most commonly members of the genus Pasteurella), whereas those from dogs more often yielded a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae (most commonly E coli).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that antimicrobial agents chosen for the initial treatment of dogs and cats with pyothorax should be active against a mixture of obligate anaerobic and facultative bacteria. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 359–363)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the strain heterogeneity of enrofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections in dogs at a veterinary medical teaching hospital (VMTH). In addition, strains from other veterinary hospitals in California were compared with the VMTH strains to assess the geographic distribution of specific enrofloxacin-resistant E coli isolates.

Design—Bacteriologic study.

Sample Population—56 isolates of E coli from urine samples (43 isolates from dogs at the VMTH, 13 isolates from dogs from other veterinary clinics in California).

Procedures—Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed on 56 isolates of E coli from urine samples from 56 dogs. All 56 isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Enrofloxacin usage data from 1994 to 1998 were obtained from the VMTH pharmacy.

Results—Several strains of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli were collected from urine samples from the VMTH, and strains identical to those from the VMTH were collected from other veterinary clinics in California. For the isolates that did share similar DNA banding patterns, variable antibiotic resistance profiles were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increased occurrence of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli from urine samples from dogs at the VMTH was not likely attributable to a single enrofloxacinresistant clone but may be attributed to a collective increase in enrofloxacin resistance among uropathogenic E coli in dogs in general. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:190–192)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify clinical features of Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary tract infection in dogs and cats and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of C urealyticum isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats for which C urealyticum was isolated from urine samples were reviewed. Isolates from clinical cases, along with previously lyophilized unsubtyped isolates of Corynebacterium spp collected between 1977 and 1995, were examined and, if subtyped as C urealyticum, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—Signalment of infected animals was variable. Prior micturition disorders were common, and all animals had signs of lower urinary tract disease at the time C urealyticum infection was diagnosed. Median urine pH was 8.0; WBCs and bacteria were variably seen in urine sediment. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 14 C urealyticum isolates revealed that all were susceptible or had intermediate susceptibility to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and vancomycin and most were susceptible to enrofloxacin. Thickening of the bladder wall and accumulation of sediment were common ultrasonographic findings. Contrast radiography or cystoscopy revealed findings consistent with encrusting cystitis in 3 dogs. Infection resolved in 2 dogs following surgical debridement of bladder plaques and antimicrobial administration. In 2 other dogs and 1 cat treated with antimicrobials, infection with C urealyticum resolved, but urinary tract infection with a different bacterial species developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preexisting urinary tract disorders are common in dogs and cats with C urealyticum infection. Treatment with appropriate antimicrobials in combination with surgical debridement might eliminate C urealyticum infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1676–1680)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and toxigenicity of Clostridium difficile isolates from horses in an intensive care unit and evaluate associations among severity of clinical disease with specific strains of C difficile.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—130 horses.

Procedures—Feces were collected from horses admitted for acute gastrointestinal tract disease with loose feces and submitted for microbial culture and immunoassay for toxin production. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on isolates for toxins A and B genes and strain identification.

Results—Isolates were grouped into 3 strains (A, B, and C) on the basis of molecular banding patterns. Toxins A and B gene sequences were detected in 93%, 95%, and 73% of isolates of strains A, B, and C, respectively. Results of fecal immunoassays for toxin A were positive in 40%, 63%, and 16% of horses with strains A, B, and C, respectively. Isolates in strain B were resistant to metronidazole. Horses infected with strain B were 10 times as likely to have been treated with metronidazole prior to the onset of diarrhea as horses infected with other strains. Duration from onset of diarrhea to discharge (among survivors) was longer, systemic inflammatory response syndromes were more pronounced, and mortality rate was higher in horses infected with strain B than those infected with strains A and C combined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses may be infected with a number of heterogeneous isolates of C difficile. Results indicated that toxigenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates vary and that metronidazole-resistant strains may be associated with severe disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea and identify clinical abnormalities in affected foals.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—28 foals with C difficile-associated diarrhea.

Procedure—Toxigenicity, molecular fingerprinting, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. Information on signalment, clinical findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, whether antimicrobials had been administered prior to development of diarrhea, and outcome was obtained from the medical records.

Results—Twenty-three (82%) foals survived. Toxin A and B gene sequences were detected in isolates from 24 of 27 foals, whereas the toxin B gene alone was detected in the isolate from 1 foal. Results of an ELISA for toxin A were positive for fecal samples from only 8 of 20 (40%) foals. Ten of 23 (43%) isolates were resistant to metronidazole. Molecular fingerprinting revealed marked heterogeneity among isolates, except for the metronidazole-resistant isolates. Sixteen foals had tachypnea. Hematologic abnormalities were indicative of inflammation. Common serum biochemical abnormalities included metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, azotemia, hypoproteinemia, hyperglycemia, and high enzyme activities. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies was adequate in all 12 foals evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a large percentage of C difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea will have the toxin A and B gene sequences. Because of the possibility that isolates will be resistant to metronidazole, susceptibility testing is warranted. Clostridium difficile isolates from foals may have a substantial amount of molecular heterogeneity. Clinical and hematologic findings in affected foals are similar to those for foals with diarrhea caused by other pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:67–73)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a method of aerobic bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens from dogs with superficial pyoderma and compare results with those for aerobic bacteriologic culture of abdominal skin specimens in healthy dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—22 dogs with epidermal collarettes and 24 healthy dogs.

Procedure–Dry sterile cotton swabs were rolled across epidermal collarettes or hairless areas of abdominal skin in healthy dogs and submitted for aerobic bacteriologic culture. Hemolytic colonies of gram-positive–staining cocci were tested for catalase production, and if results were positive, a coagulase test was performed. Colonies with coagulase activity were tested for the ability to ferment mannitol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all Staphylococcus spp that were isolated.

ResultsS intermedius was isolated from collarettes in 18 of 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma but not from healthy dogs. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of the culture method were 81.8% and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the ability to culture S intermedius, the number of S intermedius isolates without resistance to antimicrobials, and the number of S intermedius isolates resistant to penicillin G when comparing dogs with superficial pyoderma for the first time and dogs with recurrent pyoderma, dogs that did or did not receive concurrent antimicrobials, and dogs with and without underlying allergic disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens was a simple and reliable method for identification of S intermedius in dogs with superficial pyoderma, regardless of history of pyoderma or current antimicrobial use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:904–908)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association