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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

During the years 1984 through 1987, 2,574 isolates of obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated from samples submitted for analysis. The most common anaerobic isolates were members of the genus Bacteroides, representing 44.6% of the isolates. Of these, the most commonly isolated identifiable microorganisms were bile-resistant and nonpigmented, belonging to the B fragilis group of Bacteroides. Importantly, obvious predilections for any one species or group of Bacteroides were not apparent for animal or site (condition), except that the proportion of isolates belonging to the nonpigmented, bile-resistant group obtained from the respiratory tract was significantly (P < 0.005) higher than that not belonging to this group. On the other hand, the proportion of isolates of the nonpigmented, bile-resistant group obtained from abscesses was significantly lower than that not belonging to this group.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the organisms most commonly isolated from pleural fluid from dogs and cats with pyothorax.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—51 dogs and 47 cats.

Procedure—Results of bacteriologic culture of pleural fluid samples obtained by means of thoracentesis were obtained from medical records. To obtain information on in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms commonly isolated from dogs and cats, records of all dogs and cats examined during 1998 were reviewed, and information was obtained on identity and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic organisms isolated from samples other than urine or urinary tract samples.

Results—Median ages of dogs and cats were 4 years. Bacteria were isolated from pleural fluid samples from 47 of 51 (92%) dogs and 45 of 47 (96%) cats. Obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 28 dogs and 40 cats. A mixture of obligate anaerobic and facultative bacteria was isolated from 17 dogs and 20 cats. Samples from cats most often yielded a member of the nonenteric group (most commonly members of the genus Pasteurella), whereas those from dogs more often yielded a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae (most commonly E coli).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that antimicrobial agents chosen for the initial treatment of dogs and cats with pyothorax should be active against a mixture of obligate anaerobic and facultative bacteria. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 359–363)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the most commonly isolated bacterial species associated with lower respiratory tract disease of dogs and to determine susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobial agents.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Sample Population

Transtracheal aspirates from 264 dogs with clinical evidence of lower respiratory tract disease.

Procedure

Records of microbiological analyses of transtracheal aspirates obtained from dogs with clinical evidence of lower respiratory tract disease were reviewed. Analyses performed included bacterial culture (anaerobic and aerobic organisms) and susceptibility testing (aerobic organisms). The medical record of each affected dog was evaluated to determine signalment and underlying condition.

Results

Bacteria were isolated from 116 of 264 (44%) samples, and 203 bacterial species were identified. Most (57%) of the samples from which bacteria could be isolated contained a single species, whereas 43% yielded cultures of mixed species. Bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae (particularly Escherichia coli) were isolated most commonly (45.7% of samples contained members of this group), followed by members of the genus Pasteurella (22.4%), obligate anaerobes (21.6%). β-hemolytic Streptococcus (12.1 %), Bordetella bronchiseptica (12.1%), nonhemolytic Streptococcus/Enterococcus sp group (12.1%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (9.5%). and Pseudomonas sp (7.8%), The most active antimicrobial drugs (inhibiting > 90% of the isolates) for aerobic microorganisms encountered most often (E coli and Pasteurella sp) included amikacin, ceftizoxime sodium, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin sulfate.

Clinical Implications

Amikacin, ceftizoxime, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin may be rational choices for treatment of suspected infectious lower respiratory tract disease of dogs. before identification of the causative agent(s) and before results of susceptibility tests become available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:55–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Random fragments of dna were obtained from a cosmid library of Salmonella agona genomic dna. From this library, 2 fragments were chosen and pooled to probe isolates of S typhimurium obtained during an episode of salmonellosis in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Chromosomal dna from the Salmonella isolates was digested with restriction endonucleases, and was probed with the random fragments of chromosomal dna. This procedure resulted in a fingerprint pattern for each isolate. We found that the method permitted discrimination between isolates involved in the disease episode and S typhimurium obtained prior to the episode. We conclude that random fragments of chromosomal dna are useful for fingerprinting isolates of S typhimurium. Analysis of plasmid dna obtained from the isolates was not as useful. Some isolates found to be identical by restriction site analysis, had plasmids of different molecular weight. These results indicate that plasmid analysis may not be as useful a fingerprinting tool as previously reported.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the strain heterogeneity of enrofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections in dogs at a veterinary medical teaching hospital (VMTH). In addition, strains from other veterinary hospitals in California were compared with the VMTH strains to assess the geographic distribution of specific enrofloxacin-resistant E coli isolates.

Design—Bacteriologic study.

Sample Population—56 isolates of E coli from urine samples (43 isolates from dogs at the VMTH, 13 isolates from dogs from other veterinary clinics in California).

Procedures—Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed on 56 isolates of E coli from urine samples from 56 dogs. All 56 isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Enrofloxacin usage data from 1994 to 1998 were obtained from the VMTH pharmacy.

Results—Several strains of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli were collected from urine samples from the VMTH, and strains identical to those from the VMTH were collected from other veterinary clinics in California. For the isolates that did share similar DNA banding patterns, variable antibiotic resistance profiles were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increased occurrence of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli from urine samples from dogs at the VMTH was not likely attributable to a single enrofloxacinresistant clone but may be attributed to a collective increase in enrofloxacin resistance among uropathogenic E coli in dogs in general. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:190–192)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify clinical features of Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary tract infection in dogs and cats and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of C urealyticum isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats for which C urealyticum was isolated from urine samples were reviewed. Isolates from clinical cases, along with previously lyophilized unsubtyped isolates of Corynebacterium spp collected between 1977 and 1995, were examined and, if subtyped as C urealyticum, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—Signalment of infected animals was variable. Prior micturition disorders were common, and all animals had signs of lower urinary tract disease at the time C urealyticum infection was diagnosed. Median urine pH was 8.0; WBCs and bacteria were variably seen in urine sediment. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 14 C urealyticum isolates revealed that all were susceptible or had intermediate susceptibility to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and vancomycin and most were susceptible to enrofloxacin. Thickening of the bladder wall and accumulation of sediment were common ultrasonographic findings. Contrast radiography or cystoscopy revealed findings consistent with encrusting cystitis in 3 dogs. Infection resolved in 2 dogs following surgical debridement of bladder plaques and antimicrobial administration. In 2 other dogs and 1 cat treated with antimicrobials, infection with C urealyticum resolved, but urinary tract infection with a different bacterial species developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preexisting urinary tract disorders are common in dogs and cats with C urealyticum infection. Treatment with appropriate antimicrobials in combination with surgical debridement might eliminate C urealyticum infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1676–1680)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria in bacterial infections in dogs and cats and susceptibility to selected antimicrobial agents.

Design—

Case series.

Sample Population—

Specimens from 1,267 dogs and 243 cats.

Procedure—

Standard anaerobic and aerobic bacterial culture methods were used. Anaerobic isolates were tested for susceptibility to selected antimicrobial agents.

Results—

Obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 199 (15.7%) and 69 (28.4%) specimens obtained from dogs and cats, respectively. More than half of the specimens that contained obligate anaerobic bacteria were from draining tracts (exclusively dogs), pleural fluid, abscesses, bones, the respiratory tract, or the abdominal cavity. The most commonly isolated obligate anaerobic bacteria (approx 70% of all isolates) were Bacteroides spp, Peptostreptococcus spp, Fusobacterium spp. and Porphvromonas spp. Eighty percent of the specimens that contained obligate anaerobic bacteria also contained facultative anaerobic or aerobic organisms. The organisms most commonly isolated in association with obligate anaerobic bacteria were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli was the most common), Pasteurella spp, and Staphvlococcus intermedius. Ninety-seven obligate anaerobic isolates were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole. All were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol, and most were susceptible to metronidazole. Only 71% of the Bacteroides isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, and only 83% were susceptible to clindamycin. Only 80% of the Clostridium isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, but all were susceptible to ampicillin.

Clinical Implications—

Data on sites and conditions from which anaerobic bacteria are commonly isolated, along with results of susceptibility testing, may be useful in designing antimicrobial treatment regimens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:1610–1614)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The combination of ampicillin together with trimethoprim-sulfonamide is sometimes used as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial regimen for treatment of dogs with bacterial infections of unknown etiopathogenesis. To determine whether this combination is indeed broad spectrum, we analyzed susceptibility data derived from commonly encountered bacterial agents in dogs.

A total of 381 isolates from 344 cases was studied. Overall, 80 (20.9%) of the 381 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfonamide; 159 (41.7%) were resistant to ampicillin, but susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfonamide; 131 (34.4%) were susceptible to both ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfonamide; and 11 (2.9%) were susceptible to ampicillin, but resistant to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Of isolates susceptible to ampicillin and/or trimethoprim-sulfonamide, 290 (96.3%) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfonamide (ampicillin increased the coverage by 3.7%). On the other hand, 142 (47.2%) were susceptible to ampicillin. In addition, with respect to agents most commonly encountered (members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and members of the genus Staphylococcus), combining ampicillin with trimethoprim-sulfonamide increased coverage by 2.2% over use of trimethoprim-sulfonamide alone.

We contend, therefore, that use of ampicillin together with trimethoprim-sulfonamide does not result in an acceptable broad-spectrum antimicrobial regimen for treatment of bacterial disease in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association