To evaluate and report measurements of the radiographic cardiac silhouette of healthy juvenile and adult ospreys (Pandion haliaetus).
54 ospreys (22 adults, 19 juveniles, and 13 birds of undetermined age) without clinical signs of cardiac disease and with adequate ventrodorsal radiographic images for cardiac silhouette assessment.
Radiographs of ospreys were assessed to determine cardiac width at the widest point as well as sternal width and thoracic width at the same level. Two-way mixed-effects models were used to evaluate interrater reliability for mean rating. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to create predictive models of cardiac width and to establish a theoretical reference range for healthy ospreys.
Cardiac width of healthy ospreys was approximately 90% to 92% of sternal width and 67% to 69% of thoracic width. Both sternal width and thoracic width were significant predictors of cardiac width in independent predictive models as well as in a combined model after controlling for age. Thirty-four of 41 (83%) measured cardiac widths were within the theoretical reference range.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ospreys are sentinels used in monitoring environmental health. Environmental factors may have an impact on the cardiac health of ospreys, but reference values for healthy ospreys have not been established for use in assessing cardiomegaly in this species. The radiographic ratios and predictive model obtained in this study may be useful for objective evaluation of cardiomegaly in ospreys.
A client-owned 12-year-old 10.3-kg (22.7-lb) female shusui koi (Cyprinus carpio) was evaluated because of an ulcerated mass on the left body wall, hyporexia, and decreased activity.
The patient was anesthetized with a solution of eugenol in water for all examinations and procedures. An approximately 7 × 5-cm smooth, raised, ulcerated, and firm mass was present ventral and lateral to the dorsal fin on the left body wall. Whole-body CT images obtained before and after contrast administration revealed an encapsulated, homogeneous, fat-opaque mass within the muscle. The mass was fat echoic with poor vascularity on ultrasonographic examination. Histologic evaluation of an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy specimen was suggestive of a lipoma.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The mass was excised, and the fish was placed in water with 0.3% salinity for 3 weeks after surgery. Postoperative antimicrobial administration was not indicated, and additional postoperative analgesic administration was considered impractical. The patient had noticeable improvement in appetite and activity with no indication of discomfort immediately following surgery. Five weeks after surgery, the incision site had healed with minimal scarring, and evaluation of CT images revealed no evidence of mass regrowth or regional osteomyelitis.
Antemortem evaluation and diagnosis of a lipoma in a teleost with subsequent excision was described. This report highlighted the logistic challenges associated with anesthesia, advanced diagnostic imaging, and surgery in fish and showed that they can be successfully overcome so that high-level medical care can be provided to such patients.