To investigate typical computed tomography (CT) features for the differentiation of vaginal from the uterine origin in dogs.
7 healthy Beagles in the prospective study and 5 bitches in the retrospective study.
In the prospective study, dual-phase CT images were obtained from sexually intact female Beagles (n = 7) during anestrus and estrus. On the CT images, the vagina and uterine horns, body, and cervix were assessed for diameter, attenuation, and contrast enhancement pattern. In the retrospective study, CT features of large vaginal lesions (leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma, hematocolpos, and Gartner’s duct cyst) were assessed in 5 bitches.
In normal bitches, the cervix was thicker with strong central enhancement compared to the uterus and vagina. The uterine artery, which enters the mesometrium at the level of the cervix, was clearly visualized and assisted in identifying the cervix. In bitches with large vaginal masses, uterine arteries were displaced by the lesions and could not be used to locate the cervix. In 4/5 dogs with vaginal masses, identification of the cervix allowed the determination of the organ of origin. In 1 dog with adenocarcinoma, CT vaginography was additionally required for determining the origin of mass.
Results from this study indicate that the cervix, recognized in CT as focal thickening of the uterus with central enhancement, may be used as a landmark for the differentiation between the uterus and vagina in bitches.
This study aimed to find the radiographic characteristics for the detection of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and congestive heart failure (CHF) in cats.
Healthy cats (n = 35) and HCM cats with (21) and without (22) CHF.
On radiography, the cardiac size using vertebral heart score, left atrium enlargement (LAE), and dilation of the pulmonary vessels were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of the radiographic characteristics regarding LAE were evaluated with the echocardiographic left atrium to aortic root ratio as a reference.
In HCM cats, cardiomegaly, LAE, and dilation of the caudal pulmonary artery were found compared with those in healthy cats. The LAE could be predicted using the elevation of the carina with 94.12% specificity but 17.5% sensitivity. When CHF developed, LAE and dilation of the caudal pulmonary vein (PV) were significantly different compared with those in HCM cats without CHF. The distal side of the summated shadow made by the right caudal PV with the ninth rib in HCM cats with CHF was significantly larger than that in HCM cats without CHF and a cut-off value of 5.35 mm was drawn with 75% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
Although there was an overlapping of radiographic findings between healthy and HCM cats, radiographic assessment of LAE can be useful for predicting HCM and the distal side of the summated shadow made by the right caudal PV with the ninth rib can predict CHF in HCM cats.
To assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the visualization of nondilated renal pelvises and ureters in dogs and to compare our findings for MRU versus CT urography (CTU).
9 healthy Beagles.
Dogs underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU, and excretory MRU, with ≥ 7 days between procedures. Contrast medium was administered IV during CTU and excretory MRU, whereas urine in the urinary tract was an intrinsic contrast medium for static-fluid MRU. For each procedure, furosemide (1 mg/kg, IV) was administered, and reconstructed dorsal plane images were acquired 3 minutes (n = 2) and 7 minutes (2) later. Images were scored for visualization of those structures and for image quality, diameters of renal pelvises and ureters were measured, and results were compared across imaging techniques.
Excretory MRU and CTU allowed good visualization of the renal pelvises and ureters, whereas static-fluid MRU provided lower visualization of the ureters. Distention of the renal pelvises and ureters was good in excretory MRU and CTU. Distention of the ureters in static-fluid MRU was insufficient compared with that in CTU and excretory MRU. Distinct artifacts were not observed in CTU and excretory MRU images. Static-fluid MRU images had several mild motion artifacts.
Our findings indicated that excretory MRU with furosemide administration was useful for visualizing nondilated renal pelvises and ureters of dogs in the present study. When performing MRU for the evaluation of dogs without urinary tract dilation, excretory MRU may be more suitable than static-fluid MRU.