Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcome in dogs and cats evaluated after submersion in freshwater.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 dogs and 3 cats.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment; causes, location, and month of submersion; physical examination findings at admission; results of blood gas analysis; treatments administered; duration of hospitalization; and outcome, including evidence of organ failure or compromise.
Results—All submersions involved bodies of freshwater. Fourteen animals were submerged in man-made water sources, 13 were submerged in natural water sources, and the body of water was not recorded in 1 case. Twenty (71%) submersions occurred from May through September. Cause was identified in 16 animals and included extraordinary circumstances (n = 6), falling into water (5), breaking through ice (3), and intentional submersion (2). Twelve animals were found submerged in water with unclear surrounding circumstances. Treatment included administration of supplemental oxygen, antimicrobials, furosemide, corticosteroids, and aminophylline and assisted ventilation. Respiratory dysfunction was detected in 21 animals. Neurologic dysfunction was detected in 12 animals, hepatocellular compromise was detected in 6 animals, and cardiovascular dysfunction was detected in 4 animals. Three dogs had hematologic dysfunction, and 2 dogs had acute renal dysfunction. Eighteen (64%) animals survived to hospital discharge, but all of the cats died. In 9 of 10 nonsurvivors, respiratory tract failure was the cause of death or reason for euthanasia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that submersion is an uncommon reason for veterinary evaluation but is associated with a good prognosis in dogs in the absence of respiratory tract failure.
Objective—To determine whether multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) could be identified in dogs with sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage, and whether the number of affected organ systems was significantly associated with mortality rate.
Design—Multicenter retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated surgically because of sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Sepsis was diagnosed on the basis of results of bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid, gross evidence of gastrointestinal tract leakage at surgery, or both. Renal dysfunction was defined as a ≥ 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration after surgery. Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined as hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment. Respiratory dysfunction was defined as a need for supplemental oxygen administration or mechanical ventilation. Hepatic dysfunction was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration > 0.5 mg/dL. Dysfunction of coagulation was defined as prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, or platelet count ≤ 100,000/μL.
Results—89 (78%) dogs had dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems, and 57 (50%) dogs had MODS. Mortality rate increased as the number of dysfunctional organ systems increased. Mortality rate was 70% (40/57) for dogs with MODS and 25% (14/57) for dogs without.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death.