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  • Author or Editor: Sonja Fonfara x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in orphaned harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups at various points during rehabilitation in a seal rescue center and determine whether cTnI concentration was associated with survival during rehabilitation and duration of rehabilitation.

DESIGN Serial cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS Fifty-five 2- to 9-day-old harbor seal pups.

PROCEDURES Blood samples for serum cTnI concentration measurement, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis were obtained from seal pups at admission into a seal rescue center, after 2 weeks of rehabilitation at the center, and prior to release. Serum cTnI concentrations were compared between seals that did or did not survive rehabilitation.

RESULTS Median serum cTnI concentration was highest at admission (0.03 ng/mL). After 2 weeks, the median value was 0.01 ng/mL; prior to release, it was 0.01 ng/mL. Seal pups that were found to have died during or after rehabilitation (n = 7) had a significantly higher median serum cTnI concentration at admission (0.06 ng/mL) than did seal pups that survived rehabilitation (and for which the postrelease fate was unknown; 48; 0.03 ng/mL). No correlation was identified between serum cTnI concentration and duration of rehabilitation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The results of this study suggested some degree of myocardial injury was present in most of the orphaned seal pups admitted for rehabilitation. Measurement of serum cTnI concentration in seal pups at admission might provide prognostic information about their likelihood of survival during or after rehabilitation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify the most frequent underlying diseases in dogs examined because of dyspnea and determine whether signalment, clinical signs, and duration of clinical signs might help guide assessment of the underlying condition and prognosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—229 dogs with dyspnea.

Procedures—Case records of dogs referred for dyspnea were reviewed and grouped according to location or etiology (upper airway, lower respiratory tract, pleural space, cardiac diseases, or obesity and stress). Signalment, clinical signs at initial examination, treatment, and survival time were analyzed.

Results—Upper airway (n = 74 [32%]) and lower respiratory tract (76 [33%]) disease were the most common diagnoses, followed by pleural space (44 [19%]) and cardiac (27 [12%]) diseases. Dogs with upper airway and pleural space disease were significantly younger than dogs with lower respiratory tract and cardiac diseases. Dogs with lower respiratory tract and associated systemic diseases were significantly less likely to be discharged from the hospital. Dogs with diseases that were treated surgically had a significantly better outcome than did medically treated patients, which were significantly more likely to be examined on an emergency basis with short duration of clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs examined because of dyspnea, young dogs may be examined more frequently with breed-associated upper respiratory tract obstruction or pleural space disease after trauma, whereas older dogs may be seen more commonly with progressive lower respiratory tract or acquired cardiac diseases. Nontraumatic acute onset dyspnea is often associated with a poor prognosis, but stabilization, especially in patients with cardiac disease, is possible. Obesity can be an important contributing or exacerbating factor in dyspneic dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare myocardial cytokine expression in dogs with naturally occurring cardiac or systemic diseases and dogs without cardiac or systemic diseases (control dogs)

Sample—Myocardial tissue samples from 7 systemic disease-affected dogs (SDDs), 7 cardiac disease-affected dogs (CDDs), and 8 control dogs.

Procedures—mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and growth differentiation factor-15 in myocardial tissue samples obtained from CDDs, SDDs, and control dogs were analyzed via quantitative PCR assays.

Results—In control dogs, only mRNA for TNF-α, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was detected; concentrations were significantly higher in male than in female dogs. In SDDs and CDDs, all cytokines, growth factors, and growth differentiation factor-15 were expressed. Compared with findings in SDDs, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ expression was significantly increased in CDDs; specifically, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 expression was increased in the atria and IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ expression was increased in the ventricles of CDDs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that the alterations in cytokine expression in SDDs and CDDs, compared with control dog findings, were a result of inflammatory system activation. The differences in cytokine expression in atria and ventricles between SDDs and CDDs were suggestive of different remodeling processes. A better knowledge of myocardial involvement in SDDs and of immune regulation in CDDs might beneficially affect morbidity and mortality rates and provide new treatment approaches.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the degree of mRNA expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), and lysyl oxidase in myocardial samples from dogs with cardiac and systemic diseases and from healthy control dogs.

Sample—Myocardial samples from the atria, ventricles, and septum of 8 control dogs, 6 dogs with systemic diseases, 4 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and 5 dogs with other cardiac diseases.

Procedures—Degrees of mRNA expression for MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13; TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4; and lysyl oxidase were measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay. Histologic examination of the hearts was performed to identify pathological changes.

Results—In myocardial samples from control dogs, only TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 mRNA expression was detected, with a significantly higher degree in male versus female dogs. In dogs with systemic and cardiac diseases, all investigated markers were expressed, with a significantly higher degree of mRNA expression than in control dogs. Furthermore, the degree of expression for MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was significantly higher in dogs with DCM than in dogs with systemic diseases and cardiac diseases other than DCM. Expression was generally greater in atrial than in ventricular tissue for MMP-2, MMP-13, and lysyl oxidase in samples from dogs with atrial fibrillation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degrees of myocardial MMP, TIMP, and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression were higher in dogs with cardiac and systemic diseases than in healthy dogs, suggesting that expression of these markers is a nonspecific consequence of end-stage diseases. Selective differences in the expression of some markers may reflect specific pathogenic mechanisms and may play a role in disease progression, morbidity and mortality rates, and treatment response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research