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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 2-year-old 38.9-kg (85.58-lb) sexually intact male German Shepherd Dog was examined because of a 4-month history of severe nasal swelling and nasal mucosa congestion. The signs were slowly progressive.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed that the dorsal aspect of the dog's nose was swollen and hard. Mucous membranes in both nostrils were hyperemic and edematous. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe nasal osteolysis and pyogranulomatous rhinitis and nasopharyngitis attributable to blastomycosis.

Treatment and Outcome—Oral administration of itraconazole was initiated (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], q 12 h for 5 days and then q 24 h). After a treatment period of 3 months, the nose had regained its normal appearance. After 5 months of treatment, the Blastomyces infection was eliminated as confirmed by results of rhinoscopy and biopsy specimen examination. No relapse was evident within 1 year after discontinuation of treatment.

Clinical Relevance—In dogs, nasal and nasopharyngeal blastomycosis can result in severe osteolysis of the nasal bone. Resolution of disease can be achieved with oral administration of itraconazole for a period of at least 5 months.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop nuclear scintigraphic and acetaminophen absorption methods for measuring abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.

Animals—9 male Holstein-Friesian calves < 30 days old.

Procedure—Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer, fresh cow's milk, or an isoosmotic (150mM) solution of NaCl, NaHCO3, or sodium acetate containing technetium TC 99m-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (370 MBq) and acetaminophen (50 mg/kg). Right lateral scintigraphic images and venous blood samples were obtained periodically after feeding. Two power exponential equations were fitted to the scintigraphic data, and 3 pharmacokinetic models were fitted to the acetaminophen concentration–time data.

Results—Data from 32 feedings were analyzed, with half emptying time for scintigraphic evaluation ranging from 29 to 202 minutes. Siegel's modified power exponential equation provided a better description of the scintigraphic data than did Elashoff's power exponential equation. The first derivative of Siegel's modified power exponential formula provided the best pharmacokinetic model for the acetaminophen absorption data. Time to maximal acetaminophen concentration (Tmax) provided the most accurate index of abomasal emptying rate from the acetaminophen concentration–time data.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abomasal emptying rate is best determined in healthy suckling calves by use of Siegel's modified power exponential equation to model the scintigraphic data. Pharmacokinetic calculation of Tmax from the acetaminophen absorption curve provides an alternative method for determining abomasal emptying rate in healthy suckling calves that is accurate, inexpensive, practical, and safe. However, it is unclear whether diarrhea would alter the acetaminophen absorption curve in calves. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:364–374)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop and validate an ultrasonographic method for measuring abomasal volume, location, and emptying rate in suckling calves.

Animals—9 male Holstein calves < 40 days of age.

Procedure—Before and after calves were fed different volumes of milk replacer or 2 L of oral electrolyte solutions, ultrasonographic measurements of abomasal dimensions (width, length, and height) were obtained by applying a 3.5-MHz sector probe to the ventral aspect of the abdomen in the transverse and sagittal planes. Abomasal volume was calculated from the ultrasonographic measurements by modeling the abomasum as an ellipsoid and by use of a power exponential equation to calculate the half-time of abomasal emptying (t1/2).

Results—Preprandial abomasal volume was 20 to 137 mL. All 3 abomasal dimensions increased during feeding and after suckling, and the abomasum was symmetrically located about the midline of the ventral aspect of the abdomen. Strong linear relationships were identified between ultrasonographic and suckled volumes, between ultrasonographic and scintigraphic heights, and between ultrasonographic and scintigraphic lengths. Ultrasonographic t1/2 was linearly related to scintigraphic t1/2; the latter is regarded as the gold standard measure of gastric emptying rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abomasum appears to provide a practical, rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method for determination of abomasal volume, location, and emptying rate in suckling calves. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:537–544)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether conscious, unsedated cats will inhale a nebulized material administered via a facemask and whether this material will reach the lower airways.

Animals—20 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—Technetium Tc 99m-diaminetriaminopentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) was nebulized into a spacer and administered to the cats via a closely fitting facemask. By use of a gamma camera, images were then immediately obtained to determine the distribution of 99mTc-DTPA within the lower airways.

Results—Images obtained by use of the gamma camera revealed that all 20 cats had inhaled 99mTc-DTPA from the facemask. In each cat, deposition of the radiopharmaceutical agent was evident throughout the lung fields.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Awake cats that were not used to the application of a facemask did inhale substances from such a device. Aerosolization of medications may be a feasible route of administration for cats with lower airway disease. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:806–809)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare abomasal emptying rates in calves after suckling milk replacer or 3 common orally administered electrolyte solution components.

Animals—5 male calves < 35 days of age.

Procedures—Calves with a cannula fitted in the abomasal body were fed 2 L of milk replacer with or without parenteral administration of atropine (0.01 mg/kg, IV, then 0.02 mg/ kg, SC, q 30 min) or isotonic (150mM) solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO3, or NaCl in a randomized crossover design. Abomasal emptying rates were determined via scintigraphy, acetaminophen absorption, ultrasonography, and change in abomasal luminal pH.

Results—Scintigraphic half-emptying time, time of maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration, ultrasonographic half-emptying time, and pH return time indicated similar abomasal emptying rates following suckling of isotonic sodium acetate, NaHCO3, and NaCl solutions, whereas the emptying rate of milk replacer was significantly slower. Mean maximal abomasal luminal pH was highest following suckling of NaHCO3 (pHmax = 7.85) and lowest following suckling of NaCl (pHmax = 4.52); sodium acetate (pHmax = 6.59) and milk replacer (pHmax = 5.84) yielded intermediate pH values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isotonic solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO3, and NaCl were rapidly emptied from the abomasum but varied markedly in their ability to alkalinize the abomasum. Sodium bicarbonate–containing orally administered electrolyte solution might increase the frequency of infection or severity of clinical disease in diarrheic calves treated for dehydration by causing prolonged abomasal alkalinization.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research