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  • Author or Editor: Sofia Borin-Crivellenti x
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OBJECTIVE To assess the discriminatory value for corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (CiALP) activity and other variables that can be measured routinely on a CBC and biochemical analysis for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

SAMPLE Medical records of 57 dogs with confirmed hypoadrenocorticism and 57 control dogs in which hypoadrenocorticism was suspected but ruled out.

PROCEDURES A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Dogs were included if a CBC and complete biochemical analysis had been performed. Dogs with iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism and dogs treated previously with glucocorticoids were excluded. Cortisol concentration for dogs with hypoadrenocorticism was ≤ 2 μg/dL both before and after ACTH administration. Cortisol concentration for control dogs was > 4 μg/dL before or after ACTH administration.

RESULTS Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CiALP activity was low (0.646; 95% confidence interval, 0.494 to 0.798). Area under the ROC curve for a model that combined the CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, activity of creatine kinase, and concentrations of SUN and albumin was high (0.994; 95% confidence interval, 0.982 to 1.000). Results for this model could be used to correctly classify all dogs, except for 1 dog with hypoadrenocorticism and no electrolyte abnormalities.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CiALP activity alone cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Combined results for CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, creatine kinase activity, and concentrations of SUN and albumin provided an excellent means to discriminate between hypoadrenocorticism and diseases that mimic hypoadrenocorticism.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



Compare erythropoiesis-related factors between different stages of canine chronic kidney disease (CKD).


8 healthy adult dogs (controls), and 24 dogs with CKD, equally divided into 3 groups based on International Renal Interest Society-CKD Guidelines (stage 2, 3, and 4) were recruited between December 2012 and December 2014.


The following were assessed in all dogs and then compared between groups: bone marrow cytology, CBC, reticulocyte count, urinalysis, serum biochemistry, blood pressure, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythropoietin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interferon-γ.


Erythropoiesis inducing and suppressing factors and the results of the bone marrow cytology of dogs in stage 2 CKD did not differ from the control group. The presence of reticulocytosis in CKD stage 2 suggests that blood loss or erythrocyte destruction might be contributing to developing anemia. Anemia in dogs with progressive CKD was associated with increasing PTH and TNFα and with elevation of the ratio of myeloid to erythroid precursor cells caused by hypoplasia of the erythroid series. The latter was represented mainly by a decrease in the population of polychromatophilic rubricytes and metarubricytes.


Increased PTH and TNFα seem to contribute to the reduced percentage of polychromatophilic rubricytes and erythroid population, thereby aggravating the anemia of dogs with advanced CKD. Gastrointestinal blood loss contributes to anemia in all canine CKD stages.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research