To report abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) findings in dogs with clinical signs of acute pancreatitis (AP) during the first 2 days of hospitalization and to compare AUS findings with severity of disease and mortality rate.
37 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of AP.
Dogs suspected of having AP with complete medical records, AUS examinations performed throughout the first 2 days of hospitalization, and available frozen surplus serum samples for quantitative measurement of canine pancreatic lipase (cPL) concentrations at hospital admission met the criteria for study inclusion. Dogs were grouped as AUS+ or AUS− on the basis of positive or negative findings for AP on AUS, respectively. Abdominal ultra-sonography findings of AP were stratified (as mild, moderate, or severe) by use of an AUS severity index, and a canine acute pancreatitis severity score was calculated.
24 of 37 (64.8%) dogs had AUS findings of AP at hospital admission, whereas 10 had positive findings for AP on AUS within 2 days of hospitalization. Three (8%) dogs were AUS− but had serum cPL concentrations > 400 µg/L (ie, values considered diagnostic for AP). On the AUS severity index, 5 of 34 (14.7%) AUS+ dogs had mild findings, 18 (52.9%) AUS+ dogs had moderate findings, and 11 (32.4%) AUS+ dogs had severe findings. Severe findings were associated with a higher risk of death than mild and moderate findings. A significant association was found between canine acute pancreatitis severity scores and mortality rates.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
For dogs with clinical signs of AP, repeated AUS examinations during hospitalization should be performed, severe findings on the AUS severity index may indicate an increased risk of death, and serum cPL concentrations may increase earlier than findings on AUS of AP.
Objective—To evaluate pulsed-wave Doppler spectral parameters as a method for distinguishing between neoplastic and inflammatory peripheral lymphadenopathy in dogs.
Sample Population—40 superficial lymph nodes from 33 dogs with peripheral lymphadenopathy.
Procedures—3 Doppler spectral tracings were recorded from each node. Spectral Doppler analysis including assessment of the resistive index, peak systolic velocity-to-end diastolic velocity (S:D) ratio, diastolic notch velocity-to-peak systolic velocity (N:S) ratio, and end diastolic velocity-to-diastolic notch velocity ratio was performed for each tracing. Several calculation methods were used to determine the Doppler indices for each lymph node. After the ultrasonographic examination, fine needle aspirates or excisional biopsy specimens of the examined lymph nodes were obtained, and lymphadenopathy was classified as either inflammatory or neoplastic (lymphomatous or metastatic) via cytologic or histologic examination. Results of Doppler analysis were compared with cytologic or histopathologic findings.
Results—The Doppler index with the highest diagnostic accuracy was the S:D ratio calculated from the first recorded tracing; a cutoff value of 3.22 yielded sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 100%, and negative predictive value of 89% for detection of neoplasia. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. At a sensitivity of 100%, the most accurate index was the N:S ratio calculated from the first recorded tracing; a cutoff value of 0.45 yielded specificity of 67%, positive predictive value of 81%, and overall diagnostic accuracy of 86.5%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that noninvasive Doppler spectral analysis may be useful in the diagnosis of neoplastic versus inflammatory peripheral lymphadenopathy in dogs.