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  • Author or Editor: Simon G. Pearce x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of anesthetic induction with diazepam and ketamine or xylazine and ketamine, with subsequent maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane, in foals undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—17 pony foals.

Procedures—Foals underwent laparotomy at 7 to 15 days of age and laparoscopy 7 to 10 days later. Foals were randomly assigned to receive diazepam, ketamine, and isoflurane (D/K/Iso; n = 8) or xylazine, ketamine, and isoflurane (X/K/Iso; 9) for both procedures.

Results—During anesthesia for laparotomy, cardiac index, and mean arterial blood pressure ranged from 110 to 180 mL/kg/min and 57 to 81 mm Hg, respectively, in the D/K/Iso group and 98 to 171 mL/kg/min and 50 to 66 mm Hg, respectively, in the X/K/Iso group. Cardiac index, heart rate, and arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in the D/K/Iso group, compared with the X/K/Iso group. During anesthesia for laparoscopy, cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure ranged from 85 to 165 mL/kg/min and 67 to 83 mm Hg, respectively, in the D/K/Iso group, and 98 to 171 mL/kg/min and 48 to 67 mm Hg, respectively, in the X/K/Iso group. Heart rates and arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in the D/K/Iso group, compared with the X/K/Iso group. There were no significant differences between groups during either experimental period for percentage end-tidal isoflurane, arterial blood gas partial pressures, or pH values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia of foals for abdominal surgery with D/K/Iso was associated with less hemodynamic depression than with X/K/Iso.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals.

Animals—19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals.

Procedure—Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 10o headdown position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured.

Results—Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals. ( Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:1324–1329)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare laparoscopic dissection withlaparoscopic dissection combined with abdominal instillation of ferric hyaluronate gel for the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in pony foals.

Animals—12 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—A serosal abrasion method was used to create adhesions at 4 sites on the jejunum (day 0). At day 7, laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions observed in each foal were recorded. In group-1 foals (n = 6), the adhesions were separated laparoscopically (treatment 1). In group-2 foals (n = 6), 300 mL of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel was infused into the abdomen after the adhesions were separated laparoscopically (treatment 2). At day 24, terminal laparoscopy was performed and the adhesions observed were recorded. Total number of adhesions within each group was compared between day 7 and 24. Data were analyzed to determine whether an association existed between the number of adhesions on day 24 and treatment type.

Results—At day 24, the number of adhesions was significantly decreased within each group, compared with the number of adhesions at day 7 (group-1 foals, 10 vs 22 adhesions; group-2 foals, 3 vs 20 adhesions). Treatment 1 was associated with a significantly higher number of adhesions at day 24, compared with treatment 2 (odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 23.02).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abdominal instillation of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel after laparoscopic dissection was a more effective technique than laparoscopic dissection alone to treat experimentally induced adhesions in pony foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis following abdominal surgery in foals is a safe and effective technique. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:681–686)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to describe and compare the anatomic distribution of a lipid contrast medium injected via the retrobulbar and Peterson nerve block techniques in heads of bovine cadavers.

Design—Original study.

Sample—5 grossly normal heads obtained from cattle at necropsy.

Procedure—Standardized techniques for the modified retrobulbar and Peterson nerve blocks were established. Each cadaver had 1 treatment performed on a randomly selected side of the head; the second treatment was performed on the alternate side of the head. Injections were performed with canola oil, which is an MR-positive contrast medium. Images of heads in the transverse and dorsal planes were obtained with a 3.0 Tesla short-bore MR system.

Results—The retrobulbar technique was characterized by widespread distribution of the contrast medium around the periorbital structures; further distribution of the medium was detected along the optic nerve and in the ethmoid turbinates and nasopharynx. After the Peterson nerve block technique, contrast medium was repeatedly located in the pterygopalatine fossa, but distribution to surrounding structures was minimal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that the retrobulbar injection technique results in a greater distribution of contrast medium to the target nerves and surrounding structures, compared with that achieved via the Peterson nerve block technique. This may explain the previously reported clinical impression that the retrobulbar block is more reliable than the Peterson nerve block but is associated with a greater risk of complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:852–855)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine reasons for epidural catheter placement among horses examined at a veterinary teaching hospital, efficacy of epidural administration of analgesics, duration of catheter placement, reasons for catheter removal, and complications encountered.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed.

Results—A total of 50 epidural catheters were placed in the 43 horses. Underlying conditions included fractures, lacerations, septic arthritis, myositis, perineal injuries, and cellulitis. Horses ranged from 2 to 21 years old and weighed between 365 and 795 kg (803 and 1,749 lb). Median duration of catheter placement was 96 hours (range, 1.5 to 480 hours). The response to epidural drug administration was reported as positive in 34 horses and negative in 4. There was no apparent response in 2 horses, and response could not be determined in 3. Three temporary patient-related complications associated with epidural catheter administration were observed. Technical problems associated with the epidural catheters included dislodgement of the catheter itself (7 catheters) or of the adapter or filter (5), obstruction (5), and leakage (5). Twenty-two catheters were removed because of resolution of the underlying condition, and 10 were removed because of complications. For 6 catheters, the reason for catheter removal was not recorded. The remaining 12 catheters were in place when the horses were euthanatized .

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that epidural catheterization can be used successfully for repeated epidural delivery of analgesics and anesthetics in horses with various clinical conditions. Complications associated with epidural catheters or epidural drug administration were infrequent and transient. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1394–1398)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe and compare the distribution of technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) pertechnate following intraosseous or IV injection (with or without use of a tourniquet) in the distal portion of the forelimb in standing horses.

Animals—4 horses.

Procedure—Each horse received 4 forelimb treatments in random sequence: intraosseous infusion with tourniquet application (IOT), intraosseous infusion without tourniquet application, IV infusion with tourniquet application (IVT), and IV infusion without tourniquet application. Dynamic nuclear scintigraphic imaging of the third metacarpal bone, proximal and middle phalanges, and distal phalanx was performed from the start of each treatment until 1 hour after infusion was completed. Radionuclide activity was compared within and between treatment groups.

Results—Tourniquet application was necessary to maintain high levels of radionuclide activity in the distal portion of the forelimb after intraosseous or IV infusion with 99mTc pertechnate; IVT and IOT treatments resulted in similar radionuclide activity in the proximal and middle phalanges and distal phalanx. Of the 4 treatments, there was significantly higher radionuclide activity in the distal aspect of the third metacarpal bone after the IOT treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a tourniquet, radionuclide administration via the intraosseous or IV routes resulted in effective perfusion of the distal portion of the forelimb and similar distribution of the agent in the phalanges of horses. Further studies are required to ascertain whether these findings apply to delivery of therapeutic agents in infected tissues via IOT or IVT. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1267–1272)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in foals.

Animals—8 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—Celiotomy was performed and adhesions created at the jejunoileal junction and at sites 0.5 and 1 m proximal to this junction, using a serosal abrasion method. Ten days after celiotomy, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was performed in the treatment group only (4 foals, randomly selected). Thirty days after the exploratory laparoscopy, a final laparoscopic examination was performed, and the foals were euthanatized. The number and characteristics of abdominal adhesions were recorded during laparoscopy 10 and 30 days after celiotomy and during necropsy.

Results—At 30 days after celiotomy, the number of adhesions in the control group was significantly higher than the number in the treatment group. In the control group, all adhesions observed during the exploratory laparoscopy were still evident at the final laparoscopy and necropsy. In the treatment group, adhesions did not form again after separation. During final laparoscopy and necropsy, a focal adhesion between the omentum and site of the initial laparoscope portal was observed in 5 of 8 foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The serosal abrasion model is useful for studying abdominal adhesions in foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was an effective technique to break down experimentally induced adhesions in the early maturation stage of formation in pony foals. Studies are required to investigate prevention of de novo adhesions at the laparoscope portal sites. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:289–294)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research