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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether clinical signs or magnetic resonance imaging findings were associated with outcome in dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—50 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance images were reviewed. A neurologic score from 1 (normal) to 5 (most severe degree of dysfunction) was assigned on the basis of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination. Follow-up information was obtained from the medical records and by means of a telephone questionnaire completed by owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Median neurologic score at the time of initial examination was 3 (range, 2 to 5). Median follow-up time was 584 days (range, 4 to 2,090 days). Neurologic score at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesion seen on magnetic resonance images (quantified as the lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio and as the percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion) were significantly associated with outcome. Sensitivity of using a lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio > 2.0 or a percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion ≥ 67% to predict an unsuccessful outcome was 100%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that severity of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesions seen on magnetic resonance images were associated with outcome in dogs with ischemic myelopathy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the protein and cellular composition of CSF in healthy adult ferrets.

Animals—42 clinically normal adult ferrets.

Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the cerebellomedullary cistern of anesthetized ferrets by use of disposable 25-gauge, 1.6-cm-long hypodermic needles. Samples were processed within 20 minutes after collection. The number of WBCs and RBCs per microliter of CSF was counted by use of a hemacytometer. The total protein concentration was determined by use of an automated chemistry analyzer.

Results—Total WBC counts (range, 0 to 8 cells/µL; mean, 1.59 cells/µL) in CSF of ferrets were similar to reference range values obtained for CSF from other species. Twenty-seven CSF samples had < 100 RBCs/µL (mean, 20.3 RBCs/µL). A small but significant effect of blood contamination on WBC counts was found between the 27 CSF samples with < 100 RBCs/µL and the remaining samples. Protein concentrations in CSF of ferrets (range, 28.0 to 68.0 mg/dL; mean, 31.4 mg/dL) were higher than has been reported for the CSF of dogs and cats. A significant effect of blood contamination on the CSF protein concentration was not found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— We have established reference range values for WBC counts and protein concentrations in CSF from healthy adult ferrets that may be useful in the clinical investigation of CNS disease. Results of our study indicate that the WBC count is significantly affected by blood contamination of the CSF sample. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:758–760)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research