OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical and laboratory findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis, emphasizing hemostasis-related findings, and evaluate these variables for associations with patient outcomes.
ANIMALS 31 cats with sepsis and 33 healthy control cats.
PROCEDURES Data collected included history; clinical signs; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and hemostatic tests; diagnosis; and outcome (survival vs death during hospitalization or ≤ 30 days after hospital discharge). Differences between cats with and without sepsis and associations between variables of interest and death were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS The sepsis group included cats with pyothorax (n = 10), septic peritonitis (7), panleukopenia virus infection (5), bite wounds (5), abscesses and diffuse cellulitis (3), and pyometra (1). Common clinical abnormalities included dehydration (21 cats), lethargy (21), anorexia (18), pale mucous membranes (15), and dullness (15). Numerous clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in cats with sepsis; novel findings included metarubricytosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high circulating muscle enzyme activities. Median activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher, and total protein C and antithrombin activities were significantly lower, in the sepsis group than in healthy control cats. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was uncommon (4/22 [18%] cats with sepsis). None of the clinicopathologic abnormalities were significantly associated with death on multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with sepsis had multiple hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic abnormalities on hospital admission, including several findings suggestive of hemostatic derangement. Additional research including larger numbers of cats is needed to further investigate these findings and explore associations with outcome.
To describe the management of dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) by continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), and to investigate the relationship between a prescribed CRRT dose, the hourly urea reduction ratio (URR), and the overall efficacy.
45 client-owned dogs diagnosed with severe AKI, receiving 48 CRRT treatments at a veterinary teaching hospital.
Retrospective study. Search of medical records of dogs with AKI managed by CRRT.
Median serum urea and creatinine at CRRT initiation were 252 mg/dL [Inter quartile range (IQR), 148 mg/dL; range, 64 to 603 mg/dL] and 9.0 mg/dL (IQR, 7 mg/dL; range, 4.3 to 42.2 mg/dL), respectively. Median treatment duration was 21 hours (IQR, 8.8 hours; range, 3 to 32 hours). Systemic heparinization and regional citrate anticoagulation were used in 24 treatments each (50%). The prescribed median CRRT dose for the entire treatment was 1 mL/kg/min (IQR, 0.4 mL/kg/min; range, 0.3 to 2.5 mL/kg/min). The median hourly URR was 4% (IQR, 1%; range, 2% to 12%), overall URR was 76% (IQR, 30%; range, 11% to 92%) and median Kt/V was 2.34 (IQR, 1.9; range, 0.24 to 7.02). The CRRT dose was increased gradually from 0.9 mL/kg/min to 1.4 mL/kg/min (P < .001) and the hourly URR decreased from 6.5% to 5.5% (P = .05). The main complication was clotting of the extra-corporeal circuit, occurring in 6/48 treatments (13%). Twenty-four dogs (53%) survived to discharge.
CRRT is safe when the prescription is based on the current veterinary guidelines for gradual urea reduction. Treatment efficacy can be maximized by gradually increasing the dose according to the actual URR.
Case Description—A 15-kg (33-lb) pregnant female mixed-breed dog of unknown age was referred because of a 10-day history of difficulty breathing.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings were dyspnea, tachypnea, decreased bronchovesicular sounds (bilateral), muffled heart sounds, and abdominal distention with palpable fetuses. Hematologic abnormalities included anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Abnormalities detected during serum biochemical analysis included decreases in concentrations of albumin, sodium, triglycerides, and total calcium and increases in activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. Thoracic radiography revealed a diaphragmatic hernia with fetuses and a soft tissue or fluid opacity within the thoracic cavity.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory celiotomy, ovariohysterectomy, partial sternotomy, placement of a right-sided thoracostomy tube, and herniorrhaphy were performed. After surgery, pneumothorax developed, and the thoracostomy tube was used to remove pleural effusion and free air. The pneumothorax did not resolve after continuous drainage of the thoracic cavity for 4 days. Autologous blood pleurodesis was performed by infusion of 80 mL (6 mL/kg [2.73 mL/lb]) of whole blood. The pneumothorax resolved immediately after injection of the blood.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood pleurodesis was used for resolution of pneumothorax in a dog after correction of a diaphragmatic hernia. Blood pleurodesis may provide a simple, safe, and inexpensive medical treatment for resolution of persistent (duration > 5 days) pneumothorax when surgery is not an option.
OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings and outcomes in dogs with head trauma and design a prognostic scale.
ANIMALS 27 dogs admitted to the Koret School Veterinary Teaching Hospital within 72 hours after traumatic head injury that underwent CT imaging of the head.
PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding dog signalment, history, physical and neurologic examination findings, and modified Glasgow coma scale scores. All CT images were retrospectively evaluated by a radiologist unaware of dog status. Short-term (10 days after trauma) and long-term (≥ 6 months after trauma) outcomes were determined, and CT findings and other variables were analyzed for associations with outcome. A prognostic CT-based scale was developed on the basis of the results.
RESULTS Cranial vault fractures, parenchymal abnormalities, or both were identified via CT in 24 of 27 (89%) dogs. Three (11%) dogs had only facial bone fractures. Intracranial hemorrhage was identified in 16 (59%) dogs, cranial vault fractures in 15 (56%), midline shift in 14 (52%), lateral ventricle asymmetry in 12 (44%), and hydrocephalus in 7 (26%). Hemorrhage and ventricular asymmetry were significantly and negatively associated with short- and long-term survival, respectively. The developed 7-point prognostic scale included points for hemorrhage, midline shift or lateral ventricle asymmetry, cranial vault fracture, and depressed fracture (1 point each) and infratentorial lesion (3 points).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings reported here may assist in determining prognoses for other dogs with head trauma. The developed scale may be useful for outcome assessment of dogs with head trauma; however, it must be validated before clinical application.