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  • Author or Editor: Shuiquan Tang x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the density, and constituents, of the mycobiome on the skin surface of normal dogs.

ANIMALS

20 normal dogs were recruited for this study, with informed consent in all cases.

METHODS

Flocked swabs were used to sample the skin surface and to sample the skin surface after superficial scraping with a blunted scapula. Both samples were taken within a brass guide with an internal area of 3.5 cm−2. Next-generation DNA sequencing was used to identify and quantify components of the mycobiome.

RESULTS

The median density of the mycobiome was 1.1 X 105 cm−2 (IQR, 27,561, 409,572). Cladosporium spp and Vishniacozyma victoriae were found on all 20 dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Knowledge of the density and the composition of the cutaneous mycobiome will increase our understanding of skin biology and may have relevance to future therapeutic trials.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the density, and the major constituents, of the bacteria on the skin surface of healthy dogs and to assess if scraping the skin before sampling was necessary.

ANIMALS

20 healthy dogs were recruited for the study, with informed consent in all cases.

METHODS

Flocked swabs were used to sample the skin surface and to sample the skin surface after superficial scraping with a blunted spatula. Both samples were taken within a brass guide of 3.5 cm−2 area. Next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing was used to identify and quantify components of the bacterial microbiome.

RESULTS

The median density of the bacterial microbiome on the ventral abdomen of 20 healthy dogs was approximately 1.1 X 105 cm−2 (IQR 1.22 X 104, 1.6 X 105 cm−2). Sphingomonas species were isolated on 17 of the 20 dogs and Corynebacterium kroppstedtii from 15.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This is the first study to report the density of the canine skin microbiome. Superficial scraping of the skin before swabbing does not affect the result of sampling the microbiome in healthy dogs. These results will increase our understanding of the biology of canine skin.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the mycobiome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

51 dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The whole maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region with a commercial sequencing platform.

RESULTS

Fungi were detected in all samples, with a total of 320 fungal species from 135 families detected in the data set. No single fungal species was found in all samples. The 3 most frequently found fungal species were Cladosporium sp (46/51 samples), Malassezia restricta (44/51 samples), and Malassezia arunalokei (36/51 samples). Certain fungi, specifically those of the family Didymellaceae, the family Irpicaceae, and the order Pleosporales, were significantly associated with different stages of periodontitis. Mycobial analysis indicated that Cladosporium sp could be considered part of the core oral cavity mycobiome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that fungi are present in the oral cavity of dogs and are characterized by substantial species diversity, with different fungal communities associated with various stages of periodontal disease. The next-generation DNA sequencing used in the present study revealed substantially more species of fungi than previous culture-based studies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the bacteriome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

Dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS

714 bacterial species from 177 families were identified. The 3 most frequently found bacterial species were Actinomyces sp (48/51 samples), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (47/51 samples), and a Campylobacter sp (48/51 samples). The most abundant species were P cangingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, and an undefined Porphyromonas sp. Porphyromonas cangingivalis and Campylobacter sp were part of the core microbiome shared among the 4 groups, and P gulae, which was significantly enriched in dogs with severe periodontal disease, was part of the core microbiome shared between all groups except dogs without periodontal disease. Christensenellaceae sp, Bacteroidales sp, Family XIII sp, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Peptostreptococcus canis, and Tannerella sp formed a unique core microbiome in dogs with severe periodontal disease.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that in dogs, potential pathogens can be common members of the oral cavity bacteriome in the absence of disease, and changes in the relative abundance of certain members of the bacteriome can be associated with severity of periodontal disease. Future studies may aim to determine whether these changes are the cause or result of periodontal disease or the host immune response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research