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- Author or Editor: Shuichi Tsuchida x
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Objective—To determine whether small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion affects intestinal intramucosal pH (pHi), arterial and portal venous blood gas values, and intestinal blood flow (IBF) and to investigate relationships between regional intestinal tissue oxygenation and systemic variables in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedure—Occlusion of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 0, 30, or 60 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes, was performed; IBF, pHi, arterial and portal venous blood gas values, arterial pressure, and heart rate were measured at various time points; and intestinal mucosal injury was histologically graded.
Results—Occlusion of the SMA induced significant decreases in pHi and IBF. After the release of the occlusion, IBF returned rapidly to baseline values, but improvement in pHi was slow. Arterial and portal venous blood gas analyses were less sensitive than tonometric measurements of pHi, and there was no correlation between results of blood gas analyses and tonometric measurements. Histologic score for intestinal mucosal injury increased significantly, depending on duration of ischemia, and there was a correlation between tonometric results and the histologic score.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that it is difficult to accurately evaluate local oxygenation disorders by monitoring at the systemic level, whereas clinically pHi is the only reliable indicator of inadequate regional intestinal tissue oxygenation in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:804–810)
Objective—To determine whether small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion induces bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine response in either the systemic or portal circulation in dogs.
Animals—17 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedure—The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 0 (group-3 dogs), 30 (group-1 dogs), or 60 (group-2 dogs) minutes, followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes; serum lactate and endotoxin concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 activities in the systemic and portal circulation and intramucosal pH were measured at various time points.
Results—In group-2 dogs, TNF-α activity was found to be significantly increased in the portal circulation, peaking at 60 minutes of reperfusion; TNF-α activity, in the systemic circulation, gradually increased from 60 minutes of reperfusion to the end of the experiment; however, the increase was not significant. In group-1 and -2 dogs, IL-6 activities significantly and gradually increased in the systemic and portal circulation during the reperfusion phase, and the magnitude of these increases was dependent on the duration of the ischemic phase. There were no significant changes in IL-1β activity or endotoxin concentration in any dog group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the our study indicate that intestinal ischemia and reperfusion leads to significant increases of the circulating TNF-α and IL-6 activities, depending on the duration of the ischemia phase, in the absence of detectable endotoxin in the circulation. This finding suggests that intestinal ischemia and reperfusion induces a systemic proinflammatory cytokine response in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1680–1686)