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  • Author or Editor: Shozo Yamashita x
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Objective—To determine the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of equine erythropoietin (EPO) and to develop region-specific antibodies to differentiate equine EPO (eEPO) and human EPO (hEPO).

Sample Population—RNA and lysate extracted from renal tissues of an adult Thoroughbred.

Procedure—Full-length cDNA was determined by use of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared with sequences of EPO reported for other species. Furthermore, 4 synthetic peptides were designed in 2 distinctive parts of the eEPO and hEPO amino acid sequences to obtain antibodies specific for eEPO and hEPO. Specificity of the antibodies was tested against supernatant of homogenized equine kidney and recombinant hEPO (rhEPO) by use of western immunoblotting techniques.

Results—Analysis of the 1,181 bp in the nucleotide sequence revealed that eEPO was a residue of 192 amino acids. Similarity of eEPO with amino acid sequences of EPO from other species was 81.0% to 90.6%. Antibodies were specifically recognized by eEPO or rhEPO molecules. Anti-hEPO (161 to 165) antibody specifically recognized rhEPO. In contrast, anti-eEPO (133 to 144) antibody reacted with the equine kidney lysate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We determined the cDNA and amino acid sequence of eEPO and developed region-specific antibodies that specifically recognized eEPO or rhEPO. These antibodies may be useful in distinguishing rhEPO from eEPO in a test to detect the misuse of rhEPO in racehorses. ( Am J Vet Res2004;65:15–19)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of minocycline in horses.

Animals—5 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the pharmacokinetic experiment and 6 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the tissue distribution experiment.

Procedures—Each mare was given 2.2 mg of minocycline hydrochloride/kg, IV. Blood samples were collected once before minocycline administration (0 hours) and 10 times within 48 hours after administration in the pharmacokinetics study, and 24 tissue samples were obtained at 0.5 and 3 hours in the distribution study.

Results—No adverse effects were observed in any of the mares after minocycline administration. The mean ± SD elimination half-life was 7.70 ± 1.91 hours. The total body clearance was 0.16 ± 0.04 L/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 1.53 ± 0.09 L/kg. The percentage of plasma protein binding was 68.1 ± 2.6%. Plasma concentration of free minocycline was 0.12 μg/mL at 12 hours. Minocycline was not detected in brain tissue, CSF or aqueous humor at 0.5 hours; however, it was found in all tissues, except in the aqueous humor, at 3 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clearance of minocycline in healthy mares was greater than that reported for humans. For effective treatment of infections with common equine pathogens, it will be necessary to administer minocycline at a dosage of 2.2 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours. This drug could be useful for infections in many tissues, including the CNS. The pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution data should aid in the appropriate use of minocycline in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1062–1066)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research