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  • Author or Editor: Shollie Falkenberg x
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Objective—To evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV).

Animals—12 crossbred beef steers.

Procedures—Steers were randomly assigned to IBRV– (control) or IBRV+ treatment groups. Experimentally challenged steers (IBRV+) received a dose of IBRV intranasally (8.0 50% tissue culture infective doses), IBRV– steers received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution placebo intranasally, and each group was placed in an isolated paddock. At 72 hours after challenge, all steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and placed into individual stanchions. Blood samples were collected on days 4 through 8. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I.

Results—From 72 to 144 hours after challenge inoculation, the IBRV+ group had significantly greater mean rectal temperature, compared with the IBRV– group; the greatest temperatures in both groups were observed at 72 hours. Serum cortisol concentrations were increased in both groups from hours 72 to 136 and serum interferon-γ concentrations were greater in the IBRV+ from 94 to 112 hours after inoculation. Growth hormone concentration was greater in the IBRV+ group at various time points, but no difference in insulin-like growth factor- I concentration was observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that IBVR challenge altered growth hormone concentration at some time points but was not associated with large increases in circulating proinflammatory cytokines.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare acute infection of cattle exposed to a high-virulence (HV) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), low-virulence (LV) BVDV, or HoBi-like virus.

Animals—24 Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Colostrum-deprived 2- to 4-week-old calves, free of BVDV antigen and antibodies, were allocated into 4 groups (6 calves/group). Calves in 3 groups were exposed to an LV BVDV strain (BVDV2-RS886), an HV BVDV strain (BVDV2–1373), or a HoBi-like virus (D32/00 HoBi), whereas calves in the fourth group were not exposed to a virus but were cohoused with calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Circulating WBCs, platelets, rectal temperature, and presence of virus in the blood were monitored.

Results—Infection of calves with any of the 3 viruses resulted in reduced numbers of circulating WBCs. Pyrexia was detected in all calves exposed to HV BVDV or LV BVDV but in only 3 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus. Diarrhea was observed in 0 of 6 calves exposed to the HoBi-like virus, 2 of 6 calves exposed to the LV BVDV, and 6 of 6 calves exposed to the HV BVDV. The HoBi-like virus was transmitted from acutely infected calves to naïve cohorts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestivirus isolated from water buffalo and cattle in South America, Southeast Asia, and Europe but not from cattle in the United States. Understanding the clinical course of disease caused by HoBi-like pestiviruses will be important for the design of surveillance programs for the United States.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the association of CBC variables and castration status at the time of arrival at a research facility with the risk of development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD).

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,179 crossbred beef bull (n = 588) and steer (591) calves included in 4 experiments at 2 University of Arkansas research facilities.

Procedures—Calves underwent processing and treatments in accordance with the experiment in which they were enrolled. Castration status and values of CBC variables were determined at the time of arrival at the facilities. Calves were monitored to detect signs of BRD during a 42-day period.

Results—The areas under the receiving operator characteristic curves for CBC variables with significant contrast test results ranged from 0.51 (neutrophil count) to 0.67 (eosinophil count), indicating they were limited predictors of BRD in calves. The only CBC variables that had significant associations with BRD in calves as determined via multivariable logistic regression analysis were eosinophil and RBC counts. The odds of BRD for bulls were 3.32 times the odds of BRD for steers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated that low eosinophil and high RBC counts in blood samples may be useful for identification of calves with a high risk for development of BRD. Further research may be warranted to validate these variables for prediction of BRD in calves. Calves that were bulls at the time of arrival had a higher risk of BRD, versus calves that were steers at that time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the efficacy of primary or booster intranasal vaccination of beef steers on clinical protection and pathogen detection following simultaneous challenge with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine herpes virus 1.


30 beef steers were randomly allocated to 3 different treatment groups starting at 2 months of age. Group A (n = 10) was administered a single dose of a parenteral modified-live vaccine and was moved to a separate pasture. Groups B (n = 10) and C (10) remained unvaccinated. At 6 months of age, all steers were weaned and transported. Subsequently, groups A and B received a single dose of an intranasal modified-live vaccine vaccine while group C remained unvaccinated. Group C was housed separately until challenge. Two days following vaccination, all steers were challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine herpes virus 1 and housed in a single pen. Clinical and antibody response outcomes and the presence of nasal pathogens were evaluated.


The odds of clinical disease were lower in group A compared with group C on day 7 postchallenge; however, antibody responses and pathogen detection were not significantly different between groups before and following viral challenge. All calves remained negative for Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis; however, significantly greater loads of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida were detected on day 7 postchallenge compared with day −2 prechallenge.


Intranasal booster vaccination of beef steers at 6 months of age reduced clinical disease early after viral challenge. Weaning, transport, and viral infection promoted increased detection rates of M haemolytica and P multocida regardless of vaccination status.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research