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  • Author or Editor: Shinya Mizuno x
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Ceruloplasmin (Cp) was isolated from fresh equine plasma by precipitation, cellulose chromatography, and improved ion-exchange chromatography. Purified equine Cp is a glycoprotein having a molecular weight of approximately 115,000. In electrophoresis, equine Cp migrated to the α1-globulin region, its isoelectric point was about 4.15 and consisted of about 890 amino acid residues.

Serum Cp concentration was measured by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. In clinically normal horses, the mean (± sd) serum Cp concentration of newborn foals was 2.87 ± 0.40 mg/ml and that of 3-month-old foals was 5.02 ± 0.92 mg/ml, which was similar to the adult value. It reached a peak of 6.06 ± 0.74 mg/ml in 2-year-old horses. The Cp concentration in mares was not statistically different for the perinatal period, but it decreased immediately before and after delivery.

Concentration of Cp increased at 6 days after im administration of turpentine oil, castration, or jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, and increased to peak values twice as high as baseline values at 7 to 14 days, returning to baseline values at 28 days after treatment.

We concluded that equine serum Cp is an acute-phase reactive protein increased in the intermediary or later phase of acute inflammation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


C-reactive protein (crp) was isolated from equine serum by use of calcium-dependent affinity chromatography conjugated pneumococcal C-polysaccharide, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. It was identified as genuine crp by its immunochemical cross-reactivity with anti-human crp, its homology with human crp in amino acid composition, and its pentameric structure as revealed by electron microscopy. Purified equine crp had a molecular weight of approximately 118,000 and was composed of 5 identical, nonglycosylated and noncovalently associated subunits with molecular weight of approximately 23,000 each. Equine crp migrated in the region between β- and γ-globulin by results of immunoelectrophoresis, and its isoelectric point was about 7.0.

In horses, increased crp concentration was associated with clinical pneumonitis, enteritis, and arthritis, compared with values obtained in clinically normal horses by use of single radial immunodiffusion method. After im administration of turpentine oil or castration, serum crp concentration increased to 6 times higher than baseline values. Results indicate that crp may be an acute-phase reactant protein in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To examine renal expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin in cats with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) for use in predicting progression to renal fibrosis.

Animals—19 cats with TIN and 9 cats without nephritis.

Procedure—Serum creatinine and BUN concentrations were measured. Indices for glomerular extra-cellular matrix (ECM), tubular injury (TI), and fibronectin were determined in renal specimens to quantify the extent of injury and fibrotic lesions. Expression of α-SMA in renal tissue was immunohistochemically detected, and correlations were evaluated between the α-SMA index and other histologic and clinical variables.

Results—The α-SMA index in tubulointerstitial areas (1.63 ± 0.78) was significantly higher in cats with TIN, especially in the periglomerular and peritubular areas, than in cats without nephritis (0.20 ± 0.14). The α-SMA index was significantly associated with the TI index (r 2 = 0.70), fibronectin index (r 2 = 0.95), BUN concentration (r 2 = 0.64), and serum creatinine concentration (r 2 = 0.66). Of special interest was that interstitial α-SMA expression appeared evident in the kidneys at an early stage of TIN, prior to the onset of ECM deposition.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of histologic and clinical examinations revealed that interstitial α-SMA expression may have clinical importance and may be a useful early histologic marker for development of chronic renal failure in cats. An immunohistochemical examination for fibrogenic molecules (such as α-SMA expression) may provide fundamental information on the pathogenesis of early-stage renal disease and aid clinical management of cats with chronic renal failure, including TIN. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1080–1086)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Equine α1-acid glycoprotein (α1 ag) was isolated from equine serum by successive ammonium precipitation, anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies, and gel filtration. Purified equine α1 ag had a molecular weight of 46,000 ± 1,000, and contained 31.4% carbohydrate. Gel isoelectric focusing revealed an isoelectric point range of 2.8 to 3.7. With immunoelectrophoresis, it was found that α1 ag migrated to the α1-globulin region.

Single radial immunodiffusion was used for quantitative measurement of α1 ag in equine serum. In clinically normal foals, serum α1 ag was undetectable (≤ 20 ng/ml) in ≤ 7-day-old foals, but was detected by 14 days. The α1 ag concentration (mean ± sd) increased to reach mean adult values of 99.23 ± 26.90 μg/ml by 1 year of age. The α1 ag concentration in pregnant mares decreased at 2 to 3 months before parturition, then gradually increased until 1 day after parturition, when a brief decrease was observed. The concentration increased again at 2 weeks after foaling, then a decrease was observed, after which the α1 ag concentration increased again by 2 to 4 months after parturition.

The concentration of serum α1 ag quickly rose to peak values 2 to 3 days after castration and jejunojejunostomy in adult horses, returning to baseline values by 14 to 28 days after surgery. The α1 ag was concluded to be an acute-phase reactive protein in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research