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  • Author or Editor: Shinobu Komori x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether continuous infusion of a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a condition mimicking septic shock in dogs would affect systemic and hepatosplanchnic circulation and oxygenation.

Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs received a low dose of LPS (Escherichia coli O55:B5) by continuous IV infusion at a rate of 1 µg/kg/h for 8 hours. Systemic hemodynamics; systemic oxygenation; blood flow in the cranial mesenteric artery, common hepatic artery, and portal vein; intestinal and hepatic tissue blood flow; mesenteric oxygenation; and intramucosal PCO2 were examined before and at selected time points after onset of the LPS infusion.

Results—After onset of the LPS infusion, cardiac index increased and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance decreased, which is characteristic of the hyperdynamic state in septic patients. Hepatosplanchnic blood flow increased during the hyperdynamic state. Intestinal PCO2 was increased even when blood flows increased. During the latter half of the experimental period, MAP was maintained but hepatosplanchnic blood flows decreased and intestinal PCO2 increased further.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggested that hepatosplanchnic blood flow enters the hyperdynamic state during the early stages of sepsis and that intestinal tissue oxygenation is threatened even when hepatosplanchnic blood flow is increased or maintained. Hence, improvement of hepatosplanchnic circulation and intestinal tissue oxygenation is important in dogs with clinical evidence of a septic condition. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1347–1354)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the safety of reduced-dosage ketoprofen (RDKET) for long-term oral administration in healthy dogs.

Animals—14 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Racemic ketoprofen (0.25 mg/kg, PO) and gelatin capsules, as a drug-free placebo, were each administered to 7 dogs for 30 days. Dogs were periodically monitored via physical examination, blood analyses, endoscopic examinations, fecal occult blood tests (tetramethylbenzidine and guaiac methods), renal function tests (effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate), urinalyses, urinary enzyme indices (N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and γ-glutamyl-transferase), and hemostatic function tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time, cuticle bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen concentration).

Results—Pyloric antrum lesion grade was significantly higher in the RDKET group on day 28, compared with the pretreatment and control group grades. Fecal occult blood grade measured by use of the tetramethylbenzidine method was significantly higher in the RDKET group on day 30, compared with the pretreatment grade. No other significant differences were detected between treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RDKET induced mild to moderate gastric mucosal injuries especially in the pyloric antrum in healthy Beagles, whereas no adverse effects were observed in renal function or hemostasis. Fecal occult blood tests may be useful as screening tests for adverse gastrointestinal effects induced by RDKET in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of continuous low-dose infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs, liver, spleen, small intestine, and pancreas in dogs.

Animals—11 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs received a continuous infusion of a low dose (10 µg/kg/h, IV) of LPS ( Escherichia coli055:B5) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20 mL/kg/h, IV) for 8 hours. Activity levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the number of WBCs in circulation were examined before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after the onset of LPS infusion. Expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA and the number of neutrophils in each tissue were examined.

Results—After the onset of LPS infusion, serum TNF-α and IL-1β activities transiently increased. Thereafter, IL-6 activity increased, and high IL-6 activity was maintained throughout the experiment. In dogs in the LPS group, expression of E-selectin mRNA increased only in the lungs, and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA increased in the lungs and liver; the number of neutrophils in the tissue increased in the lungs and liver.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA increased during sepsis, particularly in the lungs and liver, and that this increase was associated with neutrophil accumulation. Hence, inhibiting the activation of endothelial cells in the lung and liver may decrease organ damage caused by accumulated neutrophils and help regulate multiple-organ dysfunction. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1259–1266)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research