Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.
Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.
Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.
Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.
Objective—To evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic effects of intracameral lidocaine hydrochloride injection in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification.
Animals—12 healthy Beagles with healthy eyes.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 intracameral injections: 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution (0.3 mL) or an equivalent amount of balanced salt solution (BSS). All dogs were treated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IV) and cefazolin (30 mg/kg, IV), and tropicamide drops were topically applied to the eyes. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. The initial end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.2%. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, inspired and end-tidal isoflurane concentrations, and oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. The allocated agent was injected intracamerally after aspiration of the same volume of aqueous humor. Ten minutes after injection, phacoemulsification was performed. After surgery began, the isoflurane concentration was adjusted according to heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Pain scores were recorded before surgery and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours after extubation.
Results—Isoflurane requirements were significantly higher in the BSS group than in the lidocaine group. Mean ± SD time to administration of supplementary analgesia was significantly shorter in the BSS group (1.4 ± 1.2 hours) than in the lidocaine group (4.9 ± 1.2 hours).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral lidocaine injection had significant analgesic effects in dogs undergoing cataract surgery. Results of this study suggest the value of intracameral lidocaine injection as an analgesic for intraocular surgery in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the mydriatic effect of intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% and 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solutions and determine the onset and duration of mydriasis according to the concentration and volume of lidocaine administered in healthy dogs.
Animals—5 healthy adult Beagles weighing 7 to 10 kg, with no apparent ocular disease.
Procedures—A double-blind randomized 9-session crossover trial was designed. Both eyes were assigned to 9 treatments with a minimum 7-day washout period between treatments: 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mL of 2% lidocaine solution; 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mL of 1% lidocaine solution; and 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mL of balanced salt solution. Dogs were anesthetized, and the allocated treatment was injected intracamerally after aspiration of the same volume of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of each eye. Two perpendicular pupil diameters were measured. Intraocular pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, ECG readings, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were monitored.
Results—Intracameral injection of 1% or 2% lidocaine solutions in volumes of 0.1 to 0.3 mL induced a significant degree of mydriasis, and the effect was maintained for 74 to 142 minutes. Lidocaine injection had no significant effect on intraocular pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, ECG readings, or end-tidal partial pressure of CO2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral lidocaine injection in healthy dogs induced mydriasis, the timing of which was affected by concentration and volume of lidocaine. This technique could serve as an alternative to topically administered mydriatics for intraocular surgery in dogs.
CASE DESCRIPTION A client-owned 2-year-old 1.8-kg (4-lb) male pet Rouen duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was evaluated because of severe swelling around the left eye following traumatic injury to the upper and lower eyelids and 2 associated surgeries that resulted in the removal of the entire upper and lower eyelid margins.
CLINICAL FINDINGS At initial evaluation, ankyloblepharon of the left eye was observed, with no upper or lower eyelid margins and a large, round, fluctuant subcutaneous mass over the left orbit. Orbital exploration and histologic examination revealed a benign cyst consisting of fibrous tissue, conjunctiva, and skeletal muscle bundles. Bacterial culture of cystic fluid yielded few Staphylococcus delphini.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Excision of the cyst and evisceration of the left globe were performed, and once daily treatment with orally administered enrofloxacin suspension (12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]) and meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) was initiated. Over the next 4 days, the cyst redeveloped and progressively enlarged. Accumulated fluid was aspirated from the cyst, and 20 mg of gentamicin was injected intraorbitally with ultrasound guidance. Over the subsequent 27-month period, no recurrence of clinical signs or adverse effects were reported by the owner.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cyst formation after adnexal injury and evisceration in birds and its successful treatment with intralesional gentamicin injection. Findings emphasized the importance of preserving lacrimal puncta during adnexal or eye removal surgeries in birds. Intralesional injection of gentamicin with the goal of destroying fluid-producing cells may be a safe and effective way to treat intraorbital cysts in birds and other species, although additional research would be required to confirm this.