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  • Author or Editor: Shih-Chieh Chang x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify prognostic factors for female dogs that have undergone surgical removal of malignant mammary tumors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—79 female dogs with malignant mammary tumors.

Procedure—Information obtained from the medical records included breed, age, sex, tumor size (maximum diameter), number and location of affected mammary glands, time between tumor identification and surgical removal, radiographic evidence of distant metastasis, surgical procedure, ovariohysterectomy (OHE) status, histologic classification of the tumor, and survival time.

Results—Results of univariate analyses indicated that clinical stage, tumor size, OHE status, metastasis to adjacent lymph nodes or distant sites, and histologic classification of the tumor were significantly associated with survival 2 years after surgery. Tumors ≥ 5 cm in diameter and tumors that had been identified > 6 months before surgery were more likely to metastasize to adjacent lymph nodes. Ovariohysterectomy was more beneficial in dogs with complex carcinomas than in dogs with simple carcinomas. In multivariate analyses, clinical stage, tumor size, and OHE status were significantly associated with survival 2 years after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that tumor stage, tumor size, and OHE status were significant prognostic factors associated with survival 2 years after surgery in dogs with malignant mammary tumors. Further, either dogs with tumors ≥ 5 cm in diameter or dogs with tumors present for > 6 months prior to surgery had a higher risk of having lymph node metastases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1625–1629)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the prognostic potential of expression of hormone receptors in malignant mammary gland tumors of dogs.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—89 female dogs with malignant mammary gland tumors and 24 female dogs with benign mammary gland tumors.

Procedures—Female dogs with malignant (n = 89 dogs) and benign (24) mammary gland tumors were evaluated to determine the prognostic value of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)A or the progesterone receptor (PR), as determined by use of immunohistochemical methods.

Results—In this study, 68 (60.2%) and 88 (77.9%) of the 113 dogs with mammary gland tumors had expression of ERA and PR, respectively. Expression of ERA and PR was detected proportionately more frequently in benign tumors (23/24 [95.8%] and 24/24 [100%], respectively) than in malignant tumors (45/89 [50.6%] and 64/89 [71.9%]). Percentage of tumors with positive results for ERA and PR was significantly higher in tumors < 5 cm in diameter; as clinical stage I, II, or III; and without metastasis to lymph nodes or distant metastasis. However, only PR expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with 1-year survival after surgical removal of the tumor. Moreover, dogs with malignant tumors expressing ERA and PR had a significantly higher survival rate, compared with the rate for dogs with malignant tumors expressing ERA but not PR.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings strongly suggested that expression of PR could be used as a prognostic factor for survival, especially in female dogs with malignant mammary gland tumors with ERA expression.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association