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  • Author or Editor: Shianne L. Koplitz x
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Objective—To determine whether platelet clumps are homogeneously distributed in blood samples, and whether platelet concentrations (PC) obtained by use of impedance and buffy coat analysis can be considered minimum values when platelet clumps are present.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—50 blood samples obtained from 30 dogs.

Procedure—10 blood samples containing platelet clumps were used and 10 smears were made from each sample; amount of platelet clumping was graded for all 100 smears. Blood from each of 20 healthy dogs was divided between 2 EDTA tubes before and after platelet clumping was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The PC for each ADP-treated and untreated sample were measured, using impedance and quantitative buffy coat analyzers.

Results—Platelet clumps were evident in all 100 blood smears, but the amount of clumping varied considerably within some samples. Using the impedance analyzer, the PC of ADP-treated samples were significantly lower and never higher than the PC of untreated samples. Using the buffy coat analyzer, some ADPtreated samples had increased PC; however, significant differences were not detected between treated and untreated samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet clumping was not homogeneous within blood samples. When platelet clumps were identified by direct examination of blood smears, the PC detected by use of the impedance analyzer could be considered minimum values. In contrast, the PC detected by use of the buffy coat analyzer were sometimes increased. Useful information can be obtained by measuring PC in blood with platelet clumps; values obtained by use of impedance can be considered minimums, and values obtained by use of buffy coat analysis may be either minimum values or reasonable estimates of PC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1552–1556)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine aortic ejection velocity in healthy adult Boxers with soft ejection murmurs without overt structural evidence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and in healthy Boxers without cardiac murmurs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—201 Boxers.

Procedure—Dogs were examined independently by 2 individuals for evidence of a cardiac murmur, and a murmur grade was assigned. Maximal instantaneous (peak) aortic ejection velocity was measured by means of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography from a subcostal location. Forty-eight dogs were reexamined approximately 1 year later.

Results—A soft (grade 1, 2, or 3) left-basilar ejection murmur was detected in 113 (56%) dogs. Overall median aortic ejection velocity was 1.91 m/s (range, 1.31 to 4.02 m/s). Dogs with murmurs had significantly higher aortic ejection velocities than did those without murmurs (median, 2.11 and 1.72 m/s, respectively). Auscultation of a murmur was 87% sensitive and 66% specific for the identification of aortic ejection velocity > 2.0 m/s. An ejection murmur and aortic ejection velocity > 2.0 m/s were identified in 73 (36%) dogs. For most dogs, observed changes in murmur grade and aortic ejection velocity during a follow-up examination 1 year later were not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ejection murmurs were common among healthy adult Boxers and that Boxers with murmurs were likely to have high (> 2.0 m/s) aortic ejection velocities. The cause of the murmurs in these dogs is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:770–774)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prevalence of ventricular arrhythmias in clinically normal adult Boxers.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—301 Boxers (181 females and 120 males) > 1 year old with echocardiographically normal systolic function and no history of syncope or congestive heart failure.

Procedures—Physical examination, which included echocardiography, was performed on all dogs. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was performed on each dog, and results were evaluated to assess ventricular arrhythmias. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine correlations between the total number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs)/24 h, grade of ventricular arrhythmia, and age of the dogs.

Results—Age of dogs ranged from 1 to 16 years (median, 4 years). Number of VPCs/24 h in each dog ranged from 0 to 62,622 (median, 6 VPCs/24 h). Grade of arrhythmias ranged from 0 to 3 (median, 1). Age was correlated significantly with number of VPCs/24 h (r = 0.43) and with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.37). Number of VPCs/24 h was significantly correlated with grade of arrhythmia (r = 0.82).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically normal adult Boxers generally had < 91 VPCs/24 h and an arrhythmia grade < 2. Boxers with > 91 VPCs/24 h were uncommon and may have represented dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or other disease processes that could have resulted in the development of ventricular arrhythmias.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association